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      A 12-year follow-up study of combined treatment of post-severe acute respiratory syndrome patients with femoral head necrosis

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To investigate the long-term efficacy of a combination treatment of alendronate, extracorporeal shock and hyperbaric oxygen for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) of post-severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients.

          Patients and methods

          The retrospective study was performed including a total of 37 post-SARS ONFH patients (66 hip joints) in the Department of Orthopedics of the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University between November 2003 and November 2015, consisting of 6 males (11 hip joints) and 31 females (55 hip joints), with age between 19 and 47 years (average 29.9 years). Visual analog scale (VAS) score, Harris score and Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) stage of imaging examination were compared among those before treatment, and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 years after treatment. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of VAS and Harris score before and after treatment. Difference of effective rate on all stages was analyzed with Chi-square test.

          Results

          With 12-year follow-up, significant improvements on VAS (6.81 of pre-treatment vs 3.94 of 12-year post-treatment) and Harris score (74.54 of pre-treatment vs 80.14 of 12-year post-treatment) were observed (all p<0.05). Effective rate showed statistical significance among three stages of ARCO ( p<0.05). The combined treatment showed different efficacies on different ARCO stages; the best was on ARCO Phase I.

          Conclusion

          The combined treatment may delay or discontinue the development of ONFH in post-SARS patients.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Ten years' experience with alendronate for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

          Antiresorptive agents are widely used to treat osteoporosis. We report the results of a multinational randomized, double-blind study, in which postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were treated with alendronate for up to 10 years. The initial three-year phase of the study compared three daily doses of alendronate with placebo. Women in the original placebo group received alendronate in years 4 and 5 and then were discharged. Women in the original active-treatment groups continued to receive alendronate during the initial extension (years 4 and 5). In two further extensions (years 6 and 7, and 8 through 10), women who had received 5 mg or 10 mg of alendronate daily continued on the same treatment. Women in the discontinuation group received 20 mg of alendronate daily for two years and 5 mg daily in years 3, 4, and 5, followed by five years of placebo. Randomized group assignments and blinding were maintained throughout the 10 years. We report results for the 247 women who participated in all four phases of the study. Treatment with 10 mg of alendronate daily for 10 years produced mean increases in bone mineral density of 13.7 percent at the lumbar spine (95 percent confidence interval, 12.0 to 15.5 percent), 10.3 percent at the trochanter (95 percent confidence interval, 8.1 to 12.4 percent), 5.4 percent at the femoral neck (95 percent confidence interval, 3.5 to 7.4 percent), and 6.7 percent at the total proximal femur (95 percent confidence interval, 4.4 to 9.1 percent) as compared with base-line values; smaller gains occurred in the group given 5 mg daily. The discontinuation of alendronate resulted in a gradual loss of effect, as measured by bone density and biochemical markers of bone remodeling. Safety data, including fractures and stature, did not suggest that prolonged treatment resulted in any loss of benefit. The therapeutic effects of alendronate were sustained, and the drug was well tolerated over a 10-year period. The discontinuation of alendronate resulted in the gradual loss of its effects. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Susceptibility to SARS coronavirus S protein-driven infection correlates with expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and infection can be blocked by soluble receptor

            The angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a receptor for the severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Here we show that ACE2 expression on cell lines correlates with susceptibility to SARS-CoV S-driven infection, suggesting that ACE2 is a major receptor for SARS-CoV. The soluble ectodomain of ACE2 specifically abrogated S-mediated infection and might therefore be exploited for the generation of inhibitors. Deletion of a major portion of the cytoplasmic domain of ACE2 had no effect on S-driven infection, indicating that this domain is not important for receptor function. Our results point to a central role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV infection and suggest a minor contribution of the cytoplasmic domain to receptor function.
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              The 2001 revised criteria for diagnosis, classification, and staging of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

              The 2001 revised criteria for the diagnosis, classification, and staging of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head were proposed in June 2001, by the working group of the Specific Disease Investigation Committee under the auspices of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, to establish criteria for diagnosis and management of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Five criteria that showed high specificity were selected for diagnosis: collapse of the femoral head (including crescent sign) without joint-space narrowing or acetabular abnormality on x-ray images; demarcating sclerosis in the femoral head without joint-space narrowing or acetabular abnormality; "cold in hot" on bone scans; low-intensity band on T1-weighted MRI (bandlike pattern); and trabecular and marrow necrosis on histology. Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is diagnosed if the patient fulfills two of these five criteria and does not have bone tumors or dysplasias. Necrotic lesions are classified into four types, based on their location on T1-weighted images or x-ray images. Type A lesions occupy the medial one-third or less of the weight-bearing portion. Type B lesions occupy the medial two-thirds or less of the weight-bearing portion. Type C1 lesions occupy more than the medial two-thirds of the weight-bearing portion but do not extend laterally to the acetabular edge. Type C2 lesions occupy more than the medial two-thirds of the weight-bearing portion and extend laterally to the acetabular edge. Staging is based on anteroposterior and lateral views of the femoral head on x-ray images. Stage 1 is defined as the period when there are no specific findings of osteonecrosis on x-ray images, although specific findings are observed on MRI, bone scintigram, or histology. Stage 2 is the period when demarcating sclerosis is observed without collapse of the femoral head. Stage 3 is the period when collapse of the femoral head, including crescent sign, is observed without joint-space narrowing. Mild osteophyte formation in the femoral head or acetabulum may be observed in stage 3. Stage 3 is divided into two substages. In stage 3A, collapse of the femoral head is less than 3 mm. In stage 3B, collapse of the femoral head is 3 mm or greater. Stage 4 is the period when osteoarthritic changes are observed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2017
                19 October 2017
                : 13
                : 1449-1454
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University
                [2 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tianjin Hospital
                [3 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
                [4 ]Department of Pneumology, the Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of PAP, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xinlong Ma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No 154 Anshandao, Heping District, Tianjin 300000, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 22 2833 2917, Email landslands2003@ 123456sina.com
                Article
                tcrm-13-1449
                10.2147/TCRM.S140694
                5656358
                © 2017 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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