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      Defining postnatal growth failure among preterm infants in Indonesia


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          Postnatal growth failure (PGF) frequently occurred among preterm infants with malnutrition. The decline in a weight-for-age z-score of ≥1.2 has been proposed to define PGF. It was unknown whether this indicator would be useful among Indonesian preterm infants.


          Infants of <37 weeks of gestational age born between 2020 and 2021, both stable and unstable, were recruited for a prospective cohort study during hospitalization in the level III neonatal intensive care unit at the Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. The prevalence of PGF as defined by a weight-for-age z-score of <−1.28 (<10th percentile) at discharge, a weight-for-age z-score of <−1.5 (<7th percentile) at discharge, or a decline in a weight-for-age z-score of ≥1.2 from birth till discharge was compared. The association between those PGF indicators with the preterm subcategory and weight gain was assessed. The association between the decline in a weight-for-age z-score of ≥1.2 with the duration to achieve full oral feeding and the time spent for total parenteral nutrition was analyzed.


          Data were collected from 650 preterm infants who survived and were discharged from the hospital. The weight-for-age z-score of <−1.28 or <−1.5 was found in 307 (47.2%) and 270 (41.5%) subjects with PGF, respectively. However, both indicators did not identify any issue of weight gain among subjects with PGF, questioning their reliability in identifying malnourished preterm infants. By contrast, the decline in a weight-for-age z-score of ≥1.2 was found in 51 (7.8%) subjects with PGF, in which this indicator revealed that subjects with PGF had an issue of weight gain. Next, a history of invasive ventilation was identified as a risk factor for preterm infants to contract PGF. Finally, the decline in a weight-for-age z-score of ≥1.2 confirmed that preterm infants with PGF took a longer time to be fully orally fed and a longer duration for total parenteral nutrition than the ones without PGF.


          The decline in a weight-for-age z-score of ≥1.2 was useful to identify preterm infants with PGF within our cohort. This could reassure pediatricians in Indonesia to use this new indicator.

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          Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition.

          The number of surviving children born prematurely has increased substantially during the last 2 decades. The major goal of enteral nutrient supply to these infants is to achieve growth similar to foetal growth coupled with satisfactory functional development. The accumulation of knowledge since the previous guideline on nutrition of preterm infants from the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in 1987 has made a new guideline necessary. Thus, an ad hoc expert panel was convened by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition in 2007 to make appropriate recommendations. The present guideline, of which the major recommendations are summarised here (for the full report, see http://links.lww.com/A1480), is consistent with, but not identical to, recent guidelines from the Life Sciences Research Office of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences published in 2002 and recommendations from the handbook Nutrition of the Preterm Infant. Scientific Basis and Practical Guidelines, 2nd ed, edited by Tsang et al, and published in 2005. The preferred food for premature infants is fortified human milk from the infant's own mother, or, alternatively, formula designed for premature infants. This guideline aims to provide proposed advisable ranges for nutrient intakes for stable-growing preterm infants up to a weight of approximately 1800 g, because most data are available for these infants. These recommendations are based on a considered review of available scientific reports on the subject, and on expert consensus for which the available scientific data are considered inadequate.
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            Preterm birth and body composition at term equivalent age: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Infants born preterm are significantly lighter and shorter on reaching term equivalent age (TEA) than are those born at term, but the relation with body composition is less clear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the body composition at TEA of infants born preterm. The databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, HMIC, "Web of Science," and "CSA Conference Papers Index" were searched between 1947 and June 2011, with selective citation and reference searching. Included studies had to have directly compared measures of body composition at TEA in preterm infants and infants born full-term. Data on body composition, anthropometry, and birth details were extracted from each article. Eight studies (733 infants) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean gestational age and weight at birth were 30.0 weeks and 1.18 kg in the preterm group and 39.6 weeks and 3.41 kg in the term group, respectively. Meta-analysis showed that the preterm infants had a greater percentage total body fat at TEA than those born full-term (mean difference, 3%; P = .03), less fat mass (mean difference, 50 g; P = .03), and much less fat-free mass (mean difference, 460 g; P < .0001). The body composition at TEA of infants born preterm is different than that of infants born at term. Preterm infants have less lean tissue but more similar fat mass. There is a need to determine whether improved nutritional management can enhance lean tissue acquisition, which indicates a need for measures of body composition in addition to routine anthropometry.
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              Postnatal growth standards for preterm infants: the Preterm Postnatal Follow-up Study of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project.

              Charts of size at birth are used to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies on the assumption that extrauterine growth should mimic that in the uterus.

                Author and article information

                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                13 March 2023
                : 10
                : 1101048
                Division of Perinatology, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital , Jakarta, Indonesia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Nita Bhandari, Society for Applied Studies, India

                Reviewed by: Harish Chellani, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, India; Ramachandran Thiruvengadam, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, India; Uttara Partap, Harvard University, United States

                *Correspondence: Rinawati Rohsiswatmo, rinarohsis@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Clinical Nutrition, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Copyright © 2023 Rohsiswatmo, Kaban, Sjahrulla, Hikmahrachim, Marsubrin, Roeslani, Iskandar, Sukarja, Kautsar and Urwah.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 17 November 2022
                : 10 February 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 25, Pages: 7, Words: 5947
                Funded by: Ministry of Health, doi 10.13039/501100004726;
                Original Research

                preterm infant,malnutrition,postnatal growth failure,indonesia,indicator


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