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      Hypoxia Sensing in Plants: On a Quest for Ion Channels as Putative Oxygen Sensors

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      Plant and Cell Physiology

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Arabidopsis gp91phox homologues AtrbohD and AtrbohF are required for accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates in the plant defense response.

          Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are strongly associated with plant defense responses. The origin of these ROI has been controversial. Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homologues (rboh genes) have been proposed to play a role in ROI generation. We analyzed lines carrying dSpm insertions in the highly expressed AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes. Both are required for full ROI production observed during incompatible interactions with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000(avrRpm1) and the oomycete parasite Peronospora parasitica. We also observed reduced cell death, visualized by trypan blue stain and reduced electrolyte leakage, in the Atrboh mutants after DC3000(avrRpm1) inoculation. However, enhanced cell death is observed after infection of mutant lines with P. parasitica. Paradoxically, although atrbohD mutation eliminated the majority of total ROI production, atrbohF mutation exhibited the strongest effect on cell death.
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            Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity.

            Flooding is an environmental stress for many natural and man-made ecosystems worldwide. Genetic diversity in the plant response to flooding includes alterations in architecture, metabolism, and elongation growth associated with a low O(2) escape strategy and an antithetical quiescence scheme that allows endurance of prolonged submergence. Flooding is frequently accompanied with a reduction of cellular O(2) content that is particularly severe when photosynthesis is limited or absent. This necessitates the production of ATP and regeneration of NAD(+) through anaerobic respiration. The examination of gene regulation and function in model systems provides insight into low-O(2)-sensing mechanisms and metabolic adjustments associated with controlled use of carbohydrate and ATP. At the developmental level, plants can escape the low-O(2) stress caused by flooding through multifaceted alterations in cellular and organ structure that promote access to and diffusion of O(2). These processes are driven by phytohormones, including ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid. This exploration of natural variation in strategies that improve O(2) and carbohydrate status during flooding provides valuable resources for the improvement of crop endurance of an environmental adversity that is enhanced by global warming.
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              The ethylene response factors SNORKEL1 and SNORKEL2 allow rice to adapt to deep water.

              Living organisms must acquire new biological functions to adapt to changing and hostile environments. Deepwater rice has evolved and adapted to flooding by acquiring the ability to significantly elongate its internodes, which have hollow structures and function as snorkels to allow gas exchange with the atmosphere, and thus prevent drowning. Many physiological studies have shown that the phytohormones ethylene, gibberellin and abscisic acid are involved in this response, but the gene(s) responsible for this trait has not been identified. Here we show the molecular mechanism of deepwater response through the identification of the genes SNORKEL1 and SNORKEL2, which trigger deepwater response by encoding ethylene response factors involved in ethylene signalling. Under deepwater conditions, ethylene accumulates in the plant and induces expression of these two genes. The products of SNORKEL1 and SNORKEL2 then trigger remarkable internode elongation via gibberellin. We also demonstrate that the introduction of three quantitative trait loci from deepwater rice into non-deepwater rice enabled the latter to become deepwater rice. This discovery will contribute to rice breeding in lowland areas that are frequently flooded during the rainy season.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plant and Cell Physiology
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0032-0781
                1471-9053
                July 01 2017
                July 01 2017
                : 58
                : 7
                : 1126-1142
                Article
                10.1093/pcp/pcx079
                © 2017

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