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      Suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices among internally displaced persons during conflict in eastern Ukraine

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          To determine current status, areas for improvement and effect of conflict on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices among internally displaced persons (IDP) in eastern Ukraine.


          Cross-sectional household survey, June 2015.


          Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia oblasts (Ukrainian administrative divisions) bordering conflict area in Ukraine.


          Randomly selected IDP households with children aged <2 years registered with local non-governmental organizations. Questions based on the WHO IYCF assessment questionnaire were asked for 477 children. Mid-upper arm circumference was measured in 411 children aged 6–23 months.


          Exclusive breast-feeding prevalence for infants aged <6 months was 25·8 (95 % CI 15·8, 38·0) %. Percentage of mothers continuing breast-feeding when their child was aged 1 and 2 years was 53·5 (95 % CI 43·2, 63·6) % and 20·6 (95 % CI 11·5, 32·7) %, respectively. Bottle-feeding was common for children aged <2 years (68·1 %; 95 % CI 63·7, 72·3 %). Almost all infants aged 6–8 months received solid foods (98·6 %; 95 % CI 88·5, 99·9 %). Mothers who discontinued breast-feeding before their infant was 6 months old more often listed stress related to conflict as their primary reason for discontinuation (45·7 %) compared with mothers who discontinued breast-feeding when their child was aged 6–23 months (14·3 %; P<0·0001).


          To mitigate the effects of conflict and improve child health, humanitarian action is needed focused on helping mothers cope with stress related to conflict and displacement while supporting women to adhere to recommended IYCF practices if possible and providing appropriate support to women when adherence is not feasible.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Anthropometric measurement error and the assessment of nutritional status.

          Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphological traits of human beings. It has a widespread and important place in nutritional assessment, and while the literature on anthropometric measurement and its interpretation is enormous, the extent to which measurement error can influence both measurement and interpretation of nutritional status is little considered. In this article, different types of anthropometric measurement error are reviewed, ways of estimating measurement error are critically evaluated, guidelines for acceptable error presented, and ways in which measures of error can be used to improve the interpretation of anthropometric nutritional status discussed. Possible errors are of two sorts; those that are associated with: (1) repeated measures giving the same value (unreliability, imprecision, undependability); and (2) measurements departing from true values (inaccuracy, bias). Imprecision is due largely to observer error, and is the most commonly used measure of anthropometric measurement error. This can be estimated by carrying out repeated anthropometric measures on the same subjects and calculating one or more of the following: technical error of measurement (TEM); percentage TEM, coefficient of reliability (R), and intraclass correlation coefficient. The first three of these measures are mathematically interrelated. Targets for training in anthropometry are at present far from perfect, and further work is needed in developing appropriate protocols for nutritional anthropometry training. Acceptable levels of measurement error are difficult to ascertain because TEM is age dependent, and the value is also related to the anthropometric characteristics of the group of population under investigation. R > 0.95 should be sought where possible, and reference values of maximum acceptable TEM at set levels of R using published data from the combined National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and II (Frisancho, 1990) are given. There is a clear hierarchy in the precision of different nutritional anthropometric measures, with weight and height being most precise. Waist and hip circumference show strong between-observer differences, and should, where possible, be carried out by one observer. Skinfolds can be associated with such large measurement error that interpretation is problematic. Ways are described in which measurement error can be used to assess the probability that differences in anthropometric measures across time within individuals are due to factors other than imprecision. Anthropometry is an important tool for nutritional assessment, and the techniques reported here should allow increased precision of measurement, and improved interpretation of anthropometric data.
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            Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in southern Nepal.

            Initiation of breast-feeding within 1 h after birth has been associated with reduced neonatal mortality in a rural Ghanaian population. In South Asia, however, breast-feeding patterns and low birth weight rates differ and this relationship has not been quantified. Data were collected during a community-based randomized trial of the impact of topical chlorhexidine antisepsis interventions on neonatal mortality and morbidity in southern Nepal. In-home visits were conducted on d 1-4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 21, and 28 to collect longitudinal information on timing of initiation and pattern of breast-feeding. Multivariable regression modeling was used to estimate the association between death and breast-feeding initiation time. Analysis was based on 22,838 breast-fed newborns surviving to 48 h. Within 1 h of birth, 3.4% of infants were breast-fed and 56.6% were breast-fed within 24 h of birth. Partially breast-fed infants (72.6%) were at higher mortality risk [relative risk (RR) = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.32-2.39] than those exclusively breast-fed. There was a trend (P = 0.03) toward higher mortality with increasing delay in breast-feeding initiation. Mortality was higher among late (> or = 24 h) compared with early (< 24 h) initiators (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.86) after adjustment for low birth weight, preterm birth, and other covariates. Improvements in breast-feeding practices in this setting may reduce neonatal mortality substantially. Approximately 7.7 and 19.1% of all neonatal deaths may be avoided with universal initiation of breast-feeding within the first day or hour of life, respectively. Community-based breast-feeding promotion programs should remain a priority, with renewed emphasis on early initiation in addition to exclusiveness and duration of breast-feeding.
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              Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cupfeeding and their effect on breastfeeding.

              To enhance breastfeeding practices, the World Health Organization discourages pacifiers and bottle-feeding. However, the effect of artificial nipples on breastfeeding duration is poorly defined. The effects of 2 types of artificial nipple exposure on breastfeeding duration were evaluated: 1) cupfeeding versus bottle-feeding for the provision of in-hospital supplements and 2) early (2-5 days) versus late (>4 weeks) pacifier introduction. A total of 700 breastfed newborns (36-42 weeks, birth weight >or=2200 g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups: bottle/early pacifier (n = 169), bottle/late pacifier (n = 167), cup/early pacifier (n = 185), or cup/late pacifier (n = 179). The cup/bottle intervention was invoked for infants who received supplemental feedings: cup (n = 251), bottle (n = 230). Data were collected at delivery and at 2, 5, 10, 16, 24, 38, and 52 weeks' postpartum. Intervention effects on breastfeeding duration were evaluated with logistic regression and survival analyses. Supplemental feedings, regardless of method (cup or bottle), had a detrimental effect on breastfeeding duration. There were no differences in cup versus bottle groups for breastfeeding duration. Effects were modified by the number of supplements; exclusive and full breastfeeding duration were prolonged in cup-fed infants given >2 supplements. Among infants delivered by cesarean, cupfeeding significantly prolonged exclusive, full, and overall breastfeeding duration. Exclusive breastfeeding at 4 weeks was less likely among infants exposed to pacifiers (early pacifier group; odds ratio: 1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.0). Early, as compared with late, pacifier use shortened overall duration (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.44) but did not affect exclusive or full duration. There was no advantage to cupfeeding for providing supplements to the general population of healthy breastfed infants, but it may have benefitted mother-infant dyads who required multiple supplements or were delivered by cesarean. Pacifier use in the neonatal period was detrimental to exclusive and overall breastfeeding. These findings support recommendations to avoid exposing breastfed infants to artificial nipples in the neonatal period.

                Author and article information

                Public Health Nutr
                Public Health Nutr
                Public Health Nutrition
                Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK )
                22 December 2017
                April 2018
                : 21
                : 5
                : 917-926
                [1 ] Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
                [2 ] Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-22, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author: Email ydj1@
                S1368980017003421 00342
                © The Authors 2017

                This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, Pages: 10
                Research Papers
                Nutritional Epidemiology


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