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      Marine heatwaves and the collapse of marginal North Atlantic kelp forests

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          Abstract

          Extreme climatic events including marine heatwaves (MHWs) are becoming more frequent and severe in the Anthropocene. However, our understanding of how these events affect population dynamics of ecologically important species is limited, in part because extreme events are rare and difficult to predict. Here, we quantified the occurrence and severity of MHWs over 60 years in warm range edge kelp forests on both sides of the North Atlantic. The cumulative annual intensity of MHWs increased two- to four-fold during this period, coinciding with the disappearance of kelps. We experimentally demonstrated a relationship between strong and severe 2018 heatwaves and high kelp mortality in both regions. Patterns of kelp mortality were strongly linked to maximum temperature anomalies, which crossed lethal thresholds in both regions. Translocation and tagging experiments revealed similar kelp mortality rates on reefs dominated by healthy kelp forests and degraded sediment-laden algal ‘turfs’, indicating equal vulnerability to extreme events. These results suggest a mechanistic link between MHWs and broad-scale kelp loss, and highlight how warming can make ecosystem boundaries unstable, forcing shifts to undesirable ecosystem states under episodically extreme climatic conditions.

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          Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Usinglme4

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            A hierarchical approach to defining marine heatwaves

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              Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                kfilbeedexter@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                7 August 2020
                7 August 2020
                2020
                : 10
                : 13388
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.10917.3e, ISNI 0000 0004 0427 3161, Institute of Marine Research, ; Nye Flødevigveien 20, 4817 His, Norway
                [2 ]GRID grid.1012.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7910, UWA Oceans Institute and School of Biological Sciences, , The University of Western Australia, ; Perth, Australia
                [3 ]GRID grid.263848.3, ISNI 0000 0001 2111 4814, Department of Biology and Werth Center for Coastal and Marine Studies, , Southern Connecticut State University, ; New Haven, CT 06515 USA
                [4 ]GRID grid.5510.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8921, Department of Biosciences, , University of Oslo, ; Blindern, PO Box 1066, 0316 Oslo, Norway
                [5 ]GRID grid.267871.d, ISNI 0000 0001 0381 6134, Department of Biology, , Villanova University, ; Villanova, PA 19085 USA
                [6 ]GRID grid.260201.7, ISNI 0000 0001 0745 9736, Department of Biology, , Montclair State University, ; Montclair, NJ 07043 USA
                Article
                70273
                10.1038/s41598-020-70273-x
                7414212
                32770015
                c34d4a67-530b-474d-8ed1-b7a28479efa9
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 1 April 2020
                : 22 July 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: Australian Research Council
                Award ID: DP190100058
                Award ID: DP170100023
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                climate-change ecology,ecosystem ecology,marine biology,climate-change impacts
                Uncategorized
                climate-change ecology, ecosystem ecology, marine biology, climate-change impacts

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