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      Dimensions and Interactions of Large T-Cell Surface Proteins

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          Abstract

          The first step of the adaptive immune response involves the interaction of T cells that express T-cell receptors (TCRs) with peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complexes expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Exactly how this leads to activation of the TCR and to downstream signaling is uncertain, however. Recent findings suggest that one of the key events is the exclusion of the large receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase CD45, from close contacts formed at sites of T-cell/APC interaction. If this is true, a full understanding of how close contact formation leads to signaling would require insights into the structures of, and interactions between, large membrane proteins like CD45 and other proteins forming the glycocalyx, such as CD43. Structural insights into the overall dimensions of these proteins using crystallographic methods are hard to obtain, and their conformations on the cell surface are also unknown. Several imaging-based optical microscopy techniques have however been developed for analyzing protein dimensions and orientation on model cell surfaces with nanometer precision. Here we review some of these methods with a focus on the use of hydrodynamic trapping, which relies on liquid flow from a micropipette to move and trap membrane-associated fluorescently labeled molecules. Important insights that have been obtained include (i) how protein flexibility and coverage might affect the effective heights of these molecules, (ii) the height of proteins on the membrane as a key parameter determining how they will distribute in cell-cell contacts, and (iii) how repulsive interactions between the extracellular parts of the proteins influences protein aggregation and distribution.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy.

          Recent advances in far-field fluorescence microscopy have led to substantial improvements in image resolution, achieving a near-molecular resolution of 20 to 30 nanometers in the two lateral dimensions. Three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale-resolution imaging, however, remains a challenge. We demonstrated 3D stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) by using optical astigmatism to determine both axial and lateral positions of individual fluorophores with nanometer accuracy. Iterative, stochastic activation of photoswitchable probes enables high-precision 3D localization of each probe, and thus the construction of a 3D image, without scanning the sample. Using this approach, we achieved an image resolution of 20 to 30 nanometers in the lateral dimensions and 50 to 60 nanometers in the axial dimension. This development allowed us to resolve the 3D morphology of nanoscopic cellular structures.
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            Structure of the complex between human T-cell receptor, viral peptide and HLA-A2.

            Recognition by a T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) of peptide complexed with a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule occurs through variable loops in the TCR structure which bury almost all the available peptide and a much larger area of the MHC molecule. The TCR fits diagonally across the MHC peptide-binding site in a surface feature common to all class I and class II MHC molecules, providing evidence that the nature of binding is general. A broadly applicable binding mode has implications for the mechanism of repertoire selection and the magnitude of alloreactions.
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              An alphabeta T cell receptor structure at 2.5 A and its orientation in the TCR-MHC complex.

              The central event in the cellular immune response to invading microorganisms is the specific recognition of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by the alphabeta T cell receptor (TCR). The x-ray structure of the complete extracellular fragment of a glycosylated alphabeta TCR was determined at 2.5 angstroms, and its orientation bound to a class I MHC-peptide (pMHC) complex was elucidated from crystals of the TCR-pMHC complex. The TCR resembles an antibody in the variable Valpha and Vbeta domains but deviates in the constant Calpha domain and in the interdomain pairing of Calpha with Cbeta. Four of seven possible asparagine-linked glycosylation sites have ordered carbohydrate moieties, one of which lies in the Calpha-Cbeta interface. The TCR combining site is relatively flat except for a deep hydrophobic cavity between the hypervariable CDR3s (complementarity-determining regions) of the alpha and beta chains. The 2C TCR covers the class I MHC H-2Kb binding groove so that the Valpha CDRs 1 and 2 are positioned over the amino-terminal region of the bound dEV8 peptide, the Vbeta chain CDRs 1 and 2 are over the carboxyl-terminal region of the peptide, and the Valpha and Vbeta CDR3s straddle the peptide between the helices around the central position of the peptide.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                27 September 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                1Department of Chemistry, Lund University , Lund, Sweden
                2Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford , Oxford, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jorge Bernardino De La Serna, United Kingdom Research and Innovation, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Eilon Sherman, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; Yeh-Shiu Chu, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan

                *Correspondence: Simon J. Davis simon.davis@ 123456imm.ox.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to T Cell Biology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2018.02215
                6170634
                Copyright © 2018 Junghans, Santos, Lui, Davis and Jönsson.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 68, Pages: 8, Words: 6170
                Funding
                Funded by: Vetenskapsrådet 10.13039/501100004359
                Award ID: 621-2014-390
                Funded by: Wellcome Trust 10.13039/100004440
                Categories
                Immunology
                Mini Review

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