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      Sleep quality as a mediator of problematic smartphone use and clinical health symptoms

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          Background and aims

          Although smartphone use brings many benefits for adolescents, it is also associated with many serious health problems. This study examined the relationship between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and clinical health symptoms (e.g., body dysfunction) and the mediating effects of sleep quality on this relationship in adolescents.


          Participants in this cross-sectional survey were 686 middle- and high-school students (girls = 55.7%, M age = 12.98 ± 1.38 years). Participants completed self-report measures of PSU, sleep quality, and physical symptoms. Correlation analyses and structural equation modeling between adolescents’ PSU and the variables of interest were conducted.


          This study indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between PSU and health symptoms. Furthermore, sleep quality mediated the relationship between PSU and health symptoms.

          Discussion and conclusions

          Findings suggest that to promote health and wellness in adolescents, individuals should be encouraged to place boundaries on smartphone use, especially at bedtime. Reducing adolescents’ exposure to smartphone use in this way may hold promise for improving the efficacy of PSU prevention efforts for adolescents.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

          Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.
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            Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

            Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Is Open Access

              Development and Validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI)

              Objective The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated. Methods A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9±2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internal-consistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. Results Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test–retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations  = 0.74–0.91) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56–0.78), but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                15 May 2018
                June 2018
                : 7
                : 2
                : 466-472
                [ 1 ]School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University , Changchun, China
                [ 2 ]Department of Psychology, The Center of Internet + Social Psychology, Renmin University of China , Beijing, China
                [ 3 ]Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University , Chongqing, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Yan Dong; Department of Psychology, The Center of Internet + Social Psychology, Renmin University of China, No. 59 Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100872, China; Phone: +86 135 2028 6732; Fax: +86 108 250 9716; E-mail: dongpsy@
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 7
                Funding sources: This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31500905) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2412018QD032).
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