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      Spectroscopic characterization of DOM and the nitrogen removal mechanism during wastewater reclamation plant

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          Abstract

          The performance of the Sha-he wastewater reclamation plant was evaluated in this study. To remove residual nitrogen after Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A 2O) treatment, three multistage Anoxic-Oxic (A/O) were added to investigate the nitrogen removal efficiency and its mechanism. In addition, the constituents and evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during wastewater reclamation was also investigated using a method combining fluorescence spectroscopy with fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results suggested that multistage A/O treatment can effectively improve the nitrogen removal ability under low concentrations of carbon sources. The total nitrogen (TN) exhibits significantly positive correlation with fulvic acid-like materials and humic acid-like materials. The correlation coefficient for TN and fulvic acid-like substances (R 2 = 0.810, P < 0.01) removal was greater than that of humic acid-like substances (R 2 = 0.636, P < 0.05). The results indicate that nitrogen removal may be achieved with the fulvic-like and humic-like substances, and the removal effects were higher by fulvic acid-like substances than humic-like substances, mostly due to that the latter were relatively more difficult to be utilized as carbon source during the nitrogen removal process. The effluent water quality of biological treatment reached the first grade A standard of “Cities sewage treatment plant pollutant discharge standard” (GB18918-2002). In addition, the effluent from the membrane bioreactor reached the “Standards of reclaimed water quality” (SL368-2006).

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          Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon.

          Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) is defined as the UV absorbance of a water sample at a given wavelength normalized for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. Our data indicate that SUVA, determined at 254 nm, is strongly correlated with percent aromaticity as determined by 13C NMR for 13 organic matter isolates obtained from a variety of aquatic environments. SUVA, therefore, is shown to be a useful parameter for estimating the dissolved aromatic carbon content in aquatic systems. Experiments involving the reactivity of DOC with chlorine and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), however, show a wide range of reactivity for samples with similar SUVA values. These results indicate that, while SUVA measurements are good predictors of general chemical characteristics of DOC, they do not provide information about reactivity of DOC derived from different types of source materials. Sample pH, nitrate, and iron were found to influence SUVA measurements.
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            Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter.

            Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water and soil. However, interpreting the > 10,000 wavelength-dependent fluorescence intensity data points represented in EEMs has posed a significant challenge. Fluorescence regional integration, a quantitative technique that integrates the volume beneath an EEM, was developed to analyze EEMs. EEMs were delineated into five excitation-emission regions based on fluorescence of model compounds, DOM fractions, and marine waters or freshwaters. Volumetric integration under the EEM within each region, normalized to the projected excitation-emission area within that region and dissolved organic carbon concentration, resulted in a normalized region-specific EEM volume (phi(i,n)). Solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, and EEMs were obtained for standard Suwannee River fulvic acid and 15 hydrophobic or hydrophilic acid, neutral, and base DOM fractions plus nonfractionated DOM from wastewater effluents and rivers in the southwestern United States. DOM fractions fluoresced in one or more EEM regions. The highest cumulative EEM volume (phi(T,n) = sigma phi(i,n)) was observed for hydrophobic neutral DOM fractions, followed by lower phi(T,n) values for hydrophobic acid, base, and hydrophilic acid DOM fractions, respectively. An extracted wastewater biomass DOM sample contained aromatic protein- and humic-like material and was characteristic of bacterial-soluble microbial products. Aromatic carbon and the presence of specific aromatic compounds (as indicated by solid-state 13C NMR and FTIR data) resulted in EEMs that aided in differentiating wastewater effluent DOM from drinking water DOM.
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              Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

              Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Funding acquisition
                Role: InvestigationRole: Software
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administration
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curation
                Role: Data curation
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Methodology
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Supervision
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: Supervision
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: Resources
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                17 November 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 11
                : e0187355
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan, P. R. China
                [2 ] State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing, China
                [3 ] Beijing Vocational College of Agriculture, Beijing, P. R. China
                [4 ] Key Laboratory of Urban Storm Water System and Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, China
                [5 ] College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
                [6 ] College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, China
                Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, BRAZIL
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-08275
                10.1371/journal.pone.0187355
                5693440
                29149172
                c36e227d-d15f-459c-8c1e-a002d2f6701a
                © 2017 Wang et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 2 March 2017
                : 18 October 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Pages: 15
                Funding
                Funded by: the National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 51678549
                Award Recipient :
                This work was kindly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51678549) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Wuhan University-Duke initiative project 201604398).
                Categories
                Research Article
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Water Quality
                Chemical Oxygen Demand
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Electromagnetic Radiation
                Luminescence
                Fluorescence
                Engineering and Technology
                Sanitary Engineering
                Solid Waste Management
                Sewage Treatment
                Engineering and Technology
                Environmental Engineering
                Pollution
                Water Pollution
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Natural Resources
                Water Resources
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Water Quality
                Engineering and Technology
                Environmental Engineering
                Sewage
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Spectrum Analysis Techniques
                Absorption Spectroscopy
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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                Uncategorized

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