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      An appraisal of golimumab in the treatment of severe, active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis

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          Abstract

          Golimumab (Simponi ®) is a fully human tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor (TNFi) antibody administered subcutaneously. In the European Union, golimumab is indicated for the treatment of adults with severe, active axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), which includes both ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). In the US, it is indicated for the treatment of adults with active AS only. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of golimumab in nr-axSpA patients compared to other TNFi agents (adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept, and certolizumab pegol). In one ongoing, well-designed controlled study (GO-AHEAD), data at 16 weeks showed that treatment with golimumab (50 mg every 4 weeks) was effective in improving the clinical signs and symptoms of disease in nr-axSpA patients. In addition, 16 weeks of treatment with golimumab reduced inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in patients with nr-axSpA. Moreover, objective evidence of active inflammation at baseline, such as a positive magnetic resonance imaging scan and/or an elevated CRP level, was a good predictor of treatment response to golimumab. Golimumab was generally well tolerated in this study, with a tolerability profile consistent with that seen in previous clinical trials for other indications. Although additional long-term data are needed, current evidence indicates that golimumab is an effective option for the treatment of nr-axSpA. However, in the absence of comparative head-to-head trials, there is no recommended hierarchy for the first prescription of a TNFi agent for the treatment of either nr-axSpA or AS.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Efficacy of adalimumab in the treatment of axial spondylarthritis without radiographically defined sacroiliitis: results of a twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by an open-label extension up to week fifty-two.

          To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist adalimumab in patients with axial spondylarthritis (SpA) without radiographically defined sacroiliitis refractory to conventional treatment. Patients with active axial SpA (n = 46) were randomized to receive placebo or adalimumab at a dosage of 40 mg subcutaneously every other week for 12 weeks, followed by an open-label extension that continued up to week 52. The diagnosis of axial SpA required the presence of 3 of 6 diagnostic criteria, including 2 of the following 3 criteria: inflammatory back pain, HLA-B27 positivity, or acute inflammation of the spine or sacroiliac joints on magnetic resonance imaging, in the absence of radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis. The primary end point was a 40% response according to the improvement criteria of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS40). All 46 patients (22 receiving adalimumab and 24 receiving placebo) completed the 12-week trial; 38 patients completed the extension period to week 52. At week 12, an ASAS40 response was achieved by 54.5% of the adalimumab-treated patients, as compared with 12.5% of the placebo-treated patients (P = 0.004). After switching to adalimumab, a similar degree of efficacy was also achieved by the patients who were initially treated with placebo. Efficacy was maintained in all patients until week 52. Young age at study entry and an elevated C-reactive protein concentration were the best predictors of achieving an ASAS40 response. Serious adverse events occurred in 5 patients, none of which was related to the study drug. Adalimumab is the first TNF antagonist to demonstrate good clinical efficacy and safety in patients with axial SpA without radiographically defined sacroiliitis.
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            Clinical and imaging efficacy of infliximab in HLA-B27-Positive patients with magnetic resonance imaging-determined early sacroiliitis.

            To evaluate the efficacy of infliximab in HLA-B27-positive patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined early sacroiliitis, using both clinical and MRI assessments. Forty patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain, as assessed by the Calin criteria, HLA-B27 positivity, clinical disease activity as measured by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), pain and morning stiffness, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined sacroiliac joint bone edema were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive infliximab 5 mg/kg or placebo at 0, 2, 6, and 12 weeks. MRI scans were performed at baseline and 16 weeks and scored by 2 observers (blinded to both the order of the scans and to treatment group), using the Leeds scoring system. Clinical assessments included the BASDAI, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) instrument, the ASsessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis International Working Group criteria (ASAS) for improvement, and markers of inflammation. The mean reduction in the total MRI score from week 0 to week 16 was significantly greater in infliximab-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients (P = 0.033). On average, significantly more lesions resolved in the infliximab group (P < 0.001), while significantly more new lesions developed in the placebo group (P = 0.004). Significantly greater improvement in the infliximab group versus the placebo group was also observed for changes from week 0 to week 16 in the BASDAI (P = 0.002), BASFI (P = 0.004), and ASQoL (P = 0.007) scores. Responses according to the ASAS criteria for 40% improvement, the ASAS criteria for 20% improvement in 5 of 6 domains, and ASAS partial remission were achieved by 61%, 44%, and 56% of infliximab-treated patients, respectively. Infliximab was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were observed. Infliximab was an effective therapy for early sacroiliitis, providing a reduction in disease activity by week 16. This study is the first to show that infliximab is effective for reducing clinical and imaging evidence of disease activity in patients with MRI-determined early axial spondylarthritis.
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              Outcomes of a multicentre randomised clinical trial of etanercept to treat ankylosing spondylitis.

              A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of etanercept to treat adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Adult patients with AS at 14 European sites were randomly assigned to 25 mg injections of etanercept or placebo twice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was an improvement of at least 20% in patient reported symptoms, based on the multicomponent Assessments in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) response criteria (ASAS 20). Secondary end points included ASAS 50 and ASAS 70 responses and improved scores on individual components of ASAS, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), acute phase reactants, and spinal mobility tests. Safety was evaluated during scheduled visits. Of 84 patients enrolled, 45 received etanercept and 39 received placebo. Significantly more etanercept patients than placebo patients responded at the ASAS 20 level as early as week 2, and sustained differences were evident up to week 12. Significantly more etanercept patients reported ASAS 50 responses at all times and ASAS 70 responses at weeks 2, 4, and 8; reported lower composite and fatigue BASDAI scores; had lower acute phase reactant levels; and had improved spinal flexion. Etanercept was well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild to moderate; the only between-group difference was injection site reactions, which occurred significantly more often in etanercept patients. Etanercept is a well tolerated and effective treatment for reducing clinical symptoms and signs of AS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                11 July 2016
                : 10
                : 2255-2262
                Affiliations
                Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Lille, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Julien Paccou, Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Lille 2, 59037 Lille, France, Tel +33 3 2044 6926, Fax +33 3 2044 5462, Email julien.paccou@ 123456chru-lille.fr
                Article
                dddt-10-2255
                10.2147/DDDT.S91441
                4946857
                27468228
                © 2016 Paccou and Flipo. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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