30
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Circadian Clock, Reward, and Memory

      review-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          During our daily activities, we experience variations in our cognitive performance, which is often accompanied by cravings for small rewards, such as consuming coffee or chocolate. This indicates that the time of day, cognitive performance, and reward may be related to one another. This review will summarize data that describe the influence of the circadian clock on addiction and mood-related behavior and put the data into perspective in relation to memory processes.

          Related collections

          Most cited references64

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Resetting of circadian time in peripheral tissues by glucocorticoid signaling.

          In mammals, circadian oscillators reside not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, which harbors the central pacemaker, but also in most peripheral tissues. Here, we show that the glucocorticoid hormone analog dexamethasone induces circadian gene expression in cultured rat-1 fibroblasts and transiently changes the phase of circadian gene expression in liver, kidney, and heart. However, dexamethasone does not affect cyclic gene expression in neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This enabled us to establish an apparent phase-shift response curve specifically for peripheral clocks in intact animals. In contrast to the central clock, circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues appear to remain responsive to phase resetting throughout the day.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Mania-like behavior induced by disruption of CLOCK.

            Circadian rhythms and the genes that make up the molecular clock have long been implicated in bipolar disorder. Genetic evidence in bipolar patients suggests that the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, CLOCK, may be particularly important. However, the exact role of this gene in the development of this disorder remains unclear. Here we show that mice carrying a mutation in the Clock gene display an overall behavioral profile that is strikingly similar to human mania, including hyperactivity, decreased sleep, lowered depression-like behavior, lower anxiety, and an increase in the reward value for cocaine, sucrose, and medial forebrain bundle stimulation. Chronic administration of the mood stabilizer lithium returns many of these behavioral responses to wild-type levels. In addition, the Clock mutant mice have an increase in dopaminergic activity in the ventral tegmental area, and their behavioral abnormalities are rescued by expressing a functional CLOCK protein via viral-mediated gene transfer specifically in the ventral tegmental area. These findings establish the Clock mutant mice as a previously unrecognized model of human mania and reveal an important role for CLOCK in the dopaminergic system in regulating behavior and mood.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Untreated depression and hippocampal volume loss.

              The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant treatment on hippocampal volumes in patients with major depression. For 38 female outpatients, the total time each had been in a depressive episode was divided into days during which the patient was receiving antidepressant medication and days during which no antidepressant treatment was received. Hippocampal gray matter volumes were determined by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and unbiased stereological measurement. Longer durations during which depressive episodes went untreated with antidepressant medication were associated with reductions in hippocampal volume. There was no significant relationship between hippocampal volume loss and time depressed while taking antidepressant medication or with lifetime exposure to antidepressants. Antidepressants may have a neuroprotective effect during depression.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Front Mol Neurosci
                Front. Mol. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
                Frontiers Research Foundation
                1662-5099
                09 November 2011
                2011
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1] 1simpleUnit of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University of Fribourg Fribourg, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Kristin Eckel-Mahan, University of California at Irvine, USA

                Reviewed by: Erik Maronde, University of Frankfurt, Germany; Lisa Carlson Lyons, Florida State University, USA; Guy C. Chan, University of Washington, USA

                *Correspondence: Urs Albrecht, Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 5, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. e-mail: urs.albrecht@ 123456unifr.ch
                Article
                10.3389/fnmol.2011.00041
                3211063
                22084628
                c3841f65-57d1-4782-9ca4-f7885edeb9e9
                Copyright © 2011 Albrecht.

                This is an open-access article subject to a non-exclusive license between the authors and Frontiers Media SA, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and other Frontiers conditions are complied with.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 71, Pages: 5, Words: 5039
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Mini Review

                Neurosciences
                cell death,addiction,circadian rhythms,neurogenesis,synaptic plasticity,cortisol
                Neurosciences
                cell death, addiction, circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, cortisol

                Comments

                Comment on this article