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      Growth in Early Life and Its Relation to Pubertal Growth :

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          Most cited references 33

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          Anthropometric reference data for international use: recommendations from a World Health Organization Expert Committee.

          The World Health Organization (WHO) convened an Expert Committee to reevaluate the use of anthropometry at different ages for assessing health, nutrition, and social wellbeing. The Committee's task included identifying reference data for anthropometric indexes when appropriate, and providing guidelines on how the data should be used. For fetal growth, the Committee recommended an existing sex-specific multiracial reference. In view of the significant technical drawbacks of the current National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference and its inadequacy for assessing the growth of breast-fed infants, the Committee recommended the development of a new reference concerning weight and length/height for infants and children, which will be a complex and costly undertaking. Proper interpretation of midupper arm circumference for preschoolers requires age-specific reference data. To evaluate adolescent height-for-age, the Committee recommended the current NCHS/WHO reference. Use of the NCHS body mass index (BMI) data, with their upper percentile elevations and skewness, is undesirable for setting health goals; however, these data were provisionally recommended for defining obesity based on a combination of elevated BMI and high subcutaneous fat. The NCHS values were provisionally recommended as reference data for subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses. Guidelines were also provided for adjusting adolescent anthropometric comparisons for maturational status. Currently, there is no need for adult reference data for BMI; interpretation should be based on pragmatic BMI cutoffs. Finally, the Committee noted that few normative anthropometric data exist for the elderly, especially for those > 80 y of age. Proper definitions of health status, function, and biologic age remain to be developed for this group.
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            Effects of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in Peruvian children: growth faltering and subsequent catch-up growth.

            The authors conducted a 2-year (1989-1991) community-based longitudinal study in a shantytown in Lima, Peru, to examine the effect of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on child growth during the year following the onset of infection. A cohort of children, aged 0-3 months at recruitment, was followed monthly for anthropometrics, weekly for stool samples, and daily for diarrheal status. Data from 185 children in the cohort permitted a comparison of growth in C. parvum-infected and noninfected children. The analyses fitted smooth, flexible curves with a linear random-effects model to estimate growth differences between C. parvum-infected and noninfected children. Children infected with C. parvum experienced growth faltering, both in weight and in height, for several months after the onset of infection, followed by a period of catch-up growth. Younger children took longer to catch up in weight than did older children. Catch-up growth, however, did not occur in children infected between ages 0 and 5 months. These children did not catch up in height, and one year after infection they exhibited an average deficit of 0.95 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.53) relative to noninfected children of similar age. Stunted children who became infected also did not catch up in either weight or height, and one year after infection they exhibited a height deficit of 1.05 cm (95% CI 0.46-1.66) relative to noninfected, stunted children of similar age. These results indicate that Cryptosporidium parvum has a lasting adverse effect on linear (height) growth, especially when acquired during infancy and when children are stunted before they become infected.
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              Bmi in childhood and its association with height gain, timing of puberty, and final height.

              No large population-based study has addressed the question of how overnutrition is related to subsequent height gain in childhood, timing of puberty, and final height. The present data represent a large Swedish population-based longitudinal growth study. Height gain in childhood, timing of reaching peak height velocity and height gain during adolescence, and final height were regarded as the short-term, interim, and long-term outcomes of childhood nutritional status, i.e. body mass index (BMI) change between 2 and 8 y. Midparental height was adjusted as the genetic influence on linear growth of the child. Childhood BMI gain was related to an increased height gain during the same period, i.e. an increase of 1 BMI unit was associated with an increase in height of 0.23 cm in boys and 0.29 cm in girls. A higher BMI gain in childhood was related to an earlier onset of puberty; the impact on the timing of puberty was 0.6 y in boys and 0.7 y in girls. Each increased unit of BMI gain in childhood also reduced the height gain in adolescence, 0.88 cm for boys and 0.51 cm for girls. No direct correlation was shown between childhood BMI gain and final height. We conclude that overnutrition between 2 and 8 y of age will not be beneficial from a final height point of view, as the temporary increase in height gain in childhood will be compensated by an earlier pubertal maturity and a subnormal height gain in adolescence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Epidemiology
                Epidemiology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1044-3983
                2003
                January 2003
                : 14
                : 1
                : 65-73
                Article
                10.1097/00001648-200301000-00016
                © 2003

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