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      White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern

      review-article

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      Veterinary Research

      EDP Sciences

      WSSV, crustacean, gene expression, host range, control strategie

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          Abstract

          Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies.

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          Most cited references 123

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          The catalytic mechanism and structure of thymidylate synthase.

          Thymidylate synthase (TS, EC 2.1.1.45) catalyzes the reductive methylation of dUMP by CH2H4folate to produce dTMP and H2folate. Knowledge of the catalytic mechanism and structure of TS has increased substantially over recent years. Major advances were derived from crystal structures of TS bound to various ligands, the ability to overexpress TS in heterologous hosts, and the numerous mutants that have been prepared and analyzed. These advances, coupled with previous knowledge, have culminated in an in-depth understanding of many important molecular details of the reaction. We review aspects of TS catalysis that are most pertinent to understanding the current status of the structure and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. Included is a discussion of available sources and assays for TS, a description of the enzyme's chemical mechanism and crystal structure, and a summary of data obtained from mutagenesis experiments.
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            The complete gene sequence of titin, expression of an unusual approximately 700-kDa titin isoform, and its interaction with obscurin identify a novel Z-line to I-band linking system.

            Titin is a giant vertebrate striated muscle protein with critical importance for myofibril elasticity and structural integrity. We show here that the complete sequence of the human titin gene contains 363 exons, which together code for 38 138 residues (4200 kDa). In its central I-band region, 47 novel PEVK exons were found, which contribute to titin's extensible spring properties. Additionally, 3 unique I-band titin exons were identified (named novex-1 to -3). Novex-3 functions as an alternative titin C-terminus. The novex-3 titin isoform is approximately 700 kDa in size and spans from Z1-Z2 (titin's N-terminus) to novex-3 (C-terminal exon). Novex-3 titin specifically interacts with obscurin, a 721-kDa myofibrillar protein composed of 57 Ig/FN3 domains, followed by one IQ, SH3, DH, and a PH domain at its C-terminus. The obscurin domains Ig48/Ig49 bind to novex-3 titin and target to the Z-line region when expressed as a GFP fusion protein in live cardiac myocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the C-terminal Ig48/Ig49 obscurin epitope near the Z-line edge. The distance from the Z-line varied with sarcomere length, suggesting that the novex-3 titin/obscurin complex forms an elastic Z-disc to I-band linking system. This system could link together calcium-dependent, SH3-, and GTPase-regulated signaling pathways in close proximity to the Z-disc, a structure increasingly implicated in the restructuring of sarcomeres during cardiomyopathies.
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              The white spot syndrome virus DNA genome sequence.

              White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is at present a major scourge to worldwide shrimp cultivation. We have determined the entire sequence of the double-stranded, circular DNA genome of WSSV, which contains 292,967 nucleotides encompassing 184 major open reading frames (ORFs). Only 6% of the WSSV ORFs have putative homologues in databases, mainly representing genes encoding enzymes for nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication, and protein modification. The remaining ORFs are mostly unassigned, except for five, which encode structural virion proteins. Unique features of WSSV are the presence of a very long ORF of 18,234 nucleotides, with unknown function, a collagen-like ORF, and nine regions, dispersed along the genome, each containing a variable number of 250-bp tandem repeats. The collective information on WSSV and the phylogenetic analysis on the viral DNA polymerase suggest that WSSV differs profoundly from all presently known viruses and that it is a representative of a new virus family. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vet Res
                vetres
                Veterinary Research
                EDP Sciences
                0928-4249
                1297-9716
                26 February 2010
                Nov-Dec 2010
                26 February 2010
                : 41
                : 6 , Emerging and re-emerging animal viruses ( publisher-idID: vetres/2010/06 )
                Affiliations
                Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), Laboratorio de Análisis Integral Acuícola Centenario Norte No. 53. Col. Prados del Centenario, Unidad Hermosillo Hermosillo Sonora C.P. 83260 México
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: asanchez04@ 123456cibnor.mx
                Article
                v09431 10.1051/vetres/2010015
                10.1051/vetres/2010015
                2855118
                20181325
                c39518de-5229-426a-8932-298c953a3426
                © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any noncommercial medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 174, Pages: 34
                Categories
                Review Article

                Veterinary medicine

                host range, crustacean, control strategie, wssv, gene expression

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