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      Fungi Associated with the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and Assessment of Entomopathogenic Isolates for Management


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          Fungi associated with the hemlock wooly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were collected throughout the eastern USA and southern China. Twenty fungal genera were identified, as were 79 entomopathogenic isolates, including: Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) (Hypocreales: Insertae sedis), Isaria farinosa (Holm: Fries.) (Cordycipitaceae), Beauveria bassiana (Balasamo) (Hyphomycetes), and Fusarium spp (Nectriaceae). The remaining fungal genera associated with insect cadavers were similar for both the USA and China collections, although the abundance of Acremonium (Hypocreaceae) was greater in China. The entomopathogenic isolates were assayed for efficacy against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and yielded mortality ranging from 3 to 92%. Ten isolates demonstrating the highest efficacy were further assessed for efficacy against field-collected A. tsugae under laboratory conditions. Overall, two B. bassiana, one L. lecanii, and a strain of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), demonstrated significantly higher efficacy against A. tsugae than the others. Isolates were further evaluated for conidial production, germination rate and colony growth at four temperatures representative of field conditions. All isolates were determined to be mesophiles with optimal temperature between 25–30° C. In general, conidial production increased with temperature, though two I. farinosa produced significantly more conidia at cooler temperatures. When efficacy values were compared with conidial production and temperature tolerances, Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF) 1080, 5170, and 5798 had characteristics comparable to the industrial B. bassiana strain GHA.

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          Chemical Signals from Avocado Surface Wax Trigger Germination and Appressorium Formation in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

          The surface wax of the host, avocado (Persea americana) fruit, induced germination and appressorium formation in the spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Waxes from nonhost plants did not induce appressorium formation in this fungus, and avocado wax did not induce appressorium formation in most Colletotrichum species that infect other hosts. Bioassays of the thin-layer chromatographic fractions of the avocado wax showed that the fatty alcohol fraction was the main appressorium-inducing component. Testing of authentic n-C8 to n-C32 fatty alcohols revealed that C24 and longer-chain alcohols induced appressorium formation. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of free fatty alcohols revealed that avocado wax contains a high content of very long chains. Waxes from nonhost plants containing an even higher content of the very long-chain alcohols did not induce appressorium formation. Waxes from nonhost plants strongly inhibited appressorium induction by avocado wax. Thus, a favorable balance between appressorium-inducing very long-chain fatty alcohols and the absence of inhibitors allows the fungus to use the host surface wax to trigger germination and differentiation of infection structures in the pathogen.
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            Role of Wind, Birds, Deer, and Humans in the Dispersal of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

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              Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungi paecilomyces spp. and Beauveria bassiana against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii.

              Pathogenicities of three species of entomopathogenic fungi against preimaginal Bemisia argentifolii were measured and compared. Third-instar nymphs on excised leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were exposed to spray applications of 14 isolates of Beauveria bassiana, 22 isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, and five isolates of Paecilomyces farinosus. B. bassiana and P. fumosoroseus isolates of diverse origins were highly pathogenic to the whitefly nymphs; median lethal doses of 14 of the 22 P. fumosoroseus and four of the 13 B. bassiana isolates ranged between 50 and 150 conidia/mm2. Five isolates of P. farinosus were also pathogenic; however, LC50s were relatively high, ranging between 350 and 4000 conidia/mm2. Nymphs infected with all but one isolate of B. bassiana displayed a pronounced red pigmentation. Postmortem hyphal growth and sporulation of B. bassiana was relatively slow and usually confined to the region immediately surrounding the dead host. Whitefly nymphs patently infected with P. fumosoroseus and P. farinosus were lightly pigmented yellow or orange. Postmortem hyphal growth and sporulation of P. fumosoroseus rapidly covered the dead host and extended several millimeters onto the surrounding leaf surface. The results indicate that highly virulent strains of P. fumosoroseus and B. bassiana with considerable whitefly control potential are widespread and numerous. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

                Author and article information

                J Insect Sci
                J. Insect Sci
                Journal of Insect Science
                University of Wisconsin Library
                11 June 2010
                : 10
                : 62
                [1]Entomology Research Laboratory, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Vermont, 661 Spear St., Burlington, VT 05405-0105.
                Author notes
                [*] [ b ] bparker@ 123456uvm.edu , [ * ]Corresponding author

                Associate Editor: Fernando Vega was editor of this paper.

                © 2010

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 19 June 2008
                : 20 September 2009
                Page count
                Pages: 18

                entomogenous,bioassay,mycoinsecticides,tsuga caroliniana,tsuga canadensis,biological control


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