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      Comparing the impact of chronic energy restriction and vitamin E supplementation on the behavior of adult rats Translated title: Comparación del impacto entre la restricción energética crónica y la suplementación con vitamina E en el comportamiento de ratas adultas

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of energy restriction and vitamin E supplementation on memory, learning, anxiety and spontaneous locomotion in adult rats. Three-month old male Wistar rats were grouped according to diet: Control (AIN 93-M; n=18), Supplemented (AIN 93-M + 1425 IU all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet; n=22) and Restricted (AIN 93-M with 30% reduction in carbohydrate energy; n=23). Sixteen weeks after, the passive avoidance (PA), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests were applied. In the EPM test, the behavioral profile of the supplemented group was characterized by a lower frequency of entries into the open arms (P < 0,026), whereas the restricted group showed a lower frequency of head dipping (P < 0,003). The ratio between the time span of the shocks and the number of attempts were larger for the supplemented than for the non-supplemented animals (P = 0,0474), thus suggesting a delay in learning in the PA test. Taken together, these results suggest that a long-term combination of carbohydrate energy restriction in rats should not cause negative behavioral alterations. Compared with vitamin E supplementation, the restricted diet performed equally or better in rats as an alternate antioxidant diet.

          Translated abstract

          Se investigó la influencia de la restricción energética en comparación a la suplementación con vitamina E en la memoria, aprendizaje, ansiedad y locomoción espontánea en ratas adultas. Machos Wistar de tres meses de edad fueron agrupados de acuerdo a las dietas: Control (AIN 93-M, n=18), Suplementados (AIN 93-M + 1425 UI all-rac-α-tocoferil acetato /kg de dieta; n=22) y Restrictos (AIN 93-M con 30% de restricción energética en los carbohidratos; n=23). Dieciséis semanas después, fueron aplicadas las pruebas de esquiva pasiva (PA), laberinto elevado en cruz (EPM) y de campo abierto (OF). En la prueba de EPM, el grupo suplementado mostró una menor frecuencia de entradas en los corredores abiertos (P < 0,026), mientras el grupo restricto registró menor frecuencia de bajadas de cabeza (P = 0,003). La razón entre la duración de los choques y el número de intentos fue superior para el grupo suplementado, que para los no suplementados (P = 0,0474), lo cual sugiere un leve perjuicio en el aprendizaje de los suplementados, según la prueba de PA. Tomados en conjunto, estos resultados sugieren que la restricción crónica en energía de carbohidratos no provoca alteraciones negativas en el comportamiento de ratas adultas y que sus beneficios pueden superar los obtenidos al suplementar la dieta patrón con vitamina E, como opción de dieta antioxidante.

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          Caloric restriction increases neurotrophic factor levels and attenuates neurochemical and behavioral deficits in a primate model of Parkinson's disease.

          We report that a low-calorie diet can lessen the severity of neurochemical deficits and motor dysfunction in a primate model of Parkinson's disease. Adult male rhesus monkeys were maintained for 6 months on a reduced-calorie diet [30% caloric restriction (CR)] or an ad libitum control diet after which they were subjected to treatment with a neurotoxin to produce a hemiparkinson condition. After neurotoxin treatment, CR monkeys exhibited significantly higher levels of locomotor activity compared with control monkeys as well as higher levels of dopamine (DA) and DA metabolites in the striatal region. Increased survival of DA neurons in the substantia nigra and improved manual dexterity were noted but did not reach statistical significance. Levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, which is known to promote the survival of DA neurons, were increased significantly in the caudate nucleus of CR monkeys, suggesting a role for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the anti-Parkinson's disease effect of the low-calorie diet.
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            Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits.

            Recent research has indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the major factor involved in CNS functional declines in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and that antioxidants, e.g., vitamin E, may ameliorate or prevent these declines. Present studies examined whether long-term feeding of Fischer 344 rats, beginning when the rats were 6 months of age and continuing for 8 months, with diets supplemented with a fruit or vegetable extract identified as being high in antioxidant activity, could prevent the age-related induction of receptor-mediated signal transduction deficits that might have a behavioral component. Thus, the following parameters were examined: (1) oxotremorine-enhanced striatal dopamine release (OX-K+-ERDA), (2) cerebellar beta receptor augmentation of GABA responding, (3) striatal synaptosomal 45Ca2+ clearance, (4) carbachol-stimulated GTPase activity, and (5) Morris water maze performance. The rats were given control diets or those supplemented with strawberry extracts (SE), 9.5 gm/kg dried aqueous extract (DAE), spinach (SPN 6.4 gm/kg DAE), or vitamin E (500 IU/kg). Results indicated that SPN-fed rats demonstrated the greatest retardation of age-effects on all parameters except GTPase activity, on which SE had the greatest effect, whereas SE and vitamin E showed significant but equal protection against these age-induced deficits on the other parameters. For example, OX-K+-ERDA enhancement was four times greater in the SPN group than in controls. Thus, phytochemicals present in antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach may be beneficial in retarding functional age-related CNS and cognitive behavioral deficits and, perhaps, may have some benefit in neurodegenerative disease.
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              Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes.

              A robust database shows that dietary supplements of vitamins E and C are safe for the general population. Because these nutrients supply antioxidant and other functions for homeostasis and protection against free radical damage, supplementation has been intensively studied. Because of perceived benefits, many persons consume quantities of vitamins E and C well above the recommended dietary allowances. As safety guidance, tolerable upper intake levels have been established by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, at 1000 mg for vitamin E and 2000 mg for vitamin C in adults. Many clinical trials with these vitamins have involved subjects with various diseases, and no consistent pattern of adverse effects has occurred at any intake. Numerous studies of vitamin C supplementation have provided no pattern of evidence to support concerns about safety other than occasional gastrointestinal upset or mild diarrhea resulting from the osmotic effects of unabsorbed quantities of vitamin C. Evidence of bleeding effects and other potential adverse effects of high vitamin E intakes in humans is not convincing. Evidence of adverse effects of vitamin C that result from its effects on iron absorption and metabolism has not been confirmed in clinical trials. Thus, we conclude from clinical trial evidence that vitamin E supplements appear safe for most adults in amounts
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2009
                : 59
                : 3
                : 287-295
                Article
                S0004-06222009000300009
                c39d68a2-1b41-4683-9ade-0f21a797e276

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Diet composition,behavior,energy restriction,vitamin E supplementation,antioxidant diet,Dieta,comportamiento,restricción energética,suplementación con vitamina E,dieta antioxidante

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