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      DNA Damage and Repair in Human Reproductive Cells

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          Abstract

          The fundamental underlying paradigm of sexual reproduction is the production of male and female gametes of sufficient genetic difference and quality that, following syngamy, they result in embryos with genomic potential to allow for future adaptive change and the ability to respond to selective pressure. The fusion of dissimilar gametes resulting in the formation of a normal and viable embryo is known as anisogamy, and is concomitant with precise structural, physiological, and molecular control of gamete function for species survival. However, along the reproductive life cycle of all organisms, both male and female gametes can be exposed to an array of “stressors” that may adversely affect the composition and biological integrity of their proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, that may consequently compromise their capacity to produce normal embryos. The aim of this review is to highlight gamete genome organization, differences in the chronology of gamete production between the male and female, the inherent DNA protective mechanisms in these reproductive cells, the aetiology of DNA damage in germ cells, and the remarkable DNA repair mechanisms, pre- and post-syngamy, that function to maintain genome integrity.

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          Most cited references134

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          De novo mutations in human genetic disease.

          New mutations have long been known to cause genetic disease, but their true contribution to the disease burden can only now be determined using family-based whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing approaches. In this Review we discuss recent findings suggesting that de novo mutations play a prominent part in rare and common forms of neurodevelopmental diseases, including intellectual disability, autism and schizophrenia. De novo mutations provide a mechanism by which early-onset reproductively lethal diseases remain frequent in the population. These mutations, although individually rare, may capture a significant part of the heritability for complex genetic diseases that is not detectable by genome-wide association studies.
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            Pathways of DNA double-strand break repair during the mammalian cell cycle.

            Little is known about the quantitative contributions of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in different cell cycle phases after physiologically relevant doses of ionizing radiation. Using immunofluorescence detection of gamma-H2AX nuclear foci as a novel approach for monitoring the repair of DSBs, we show here that NHEJ-defective hamster cells (CHO mutant V3 cells) have strongly reduced repair in all cell cycle phases after 1 Gy of irradiation. In contrast, HR-defective CHO irs1SF cells have a minor repair defect in G(1), greater impairment in S, and a substantial defect in late S/G(2). Furthermore, the radiosensitivity of irs1SF cells is slight in G(1) but dramatically higher in late S/G(2), while V3 cells show high sensitivity throughout the cell cycle. These findings show that NHEJ is important in all cell cycle phases, while HR is particularly important in late S/G(2), where both pathways contribute to repair and radioresistance. In contrast to DSBs produced by ionizing radiation, DSBs produced by the replication inhibitor aphidicolin are repaired entirely by HR. irs1SF, but not V3, cells show hypersensitivity to aphidicolin treatment. These data provide the first evaluation of the cell cycle-specific contributions of NHEJ and HR to the repair of radiation-induced versus replication-associated DSBs.
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              Rate, molecular spectrum, and consequences of human mutation.

              M. Lynch (2010)
              Although mutation provides the fuel for phenotypic evolution, it also imposes a substantial burden on fitness through the production of predominantly deleterious alleles, a matter of concern from a human-health perspective. Here, recently established databases on de novo mutations for monogenic disorders are used to estimate the rate and molecular spectrum of spontaneously arising mutations and to derive a number of inferences with respect to eukaryotic genome evolution. Although the human per-generation mutation rate is exceptionally high, on a per-cell division basis, the human germline mutation rate is lower than that recorded for any other species. Comparison with data from other species demonstrates a universal mutational bias toward A/T composition, and leads to the hypothesis that genome-wide nucleotide composition generally evolves to the point at which the power of selection in favor of G/C is approximately balanced by the power of random genetic drift, such that variation in equilibrium genome-wide nucleotide composition is largely defined by variation in mutation biases. Quantification of the hazards associated with introns reveals that mutations at key splice-site residues are a major source of human mortality. Finally, a consideration of the long-term consequences of current human behavior for deleterious-mutation accumulation leads to the conclusion that a substantial reduction in human fitness can be expected over the next few centuries in industrialized societies unless novel means of genetic intervention are developed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                21 December 2018
                January 2019
                : 20
                : 1
                : 31
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain; anais.garcia@ 123456uam.es (A.G.-R.); jaime.gosalvez@ 123456uam.es (J.G.)
                [2 ]American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA; agarwaa@ 123456ccf.org
                [3 ]School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0290-5458
                Article
                ijms-20-00031
                10.3390/ijms20010031
                6337641
                30577615
                c39f75aa-2a9d-4b74-bb88-af27922367b6
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 14 November 2018
                : 20 December 2018
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                spermatozoon,oocyte,dna damage,dna repair,protamine,genetics,infertility
                Molecular biology
                spermatozoon, oocyte, dna damage, dna repair, protamine, genetics, infertility

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