In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the biochemical, morphological and molecular genetic differentiation of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). Fluorine-18 L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography (<sup>18</sup>F-DOPA-PET) has been introduced for differentiation between focal and diffuse CHI. The ability to take up L-DOPA and convert it into dopamine is correlated with the activity of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase and increased in the hyperfunctional affected pancreatic area in comparison to normally functioning pancreas. The high sensitivity of this method allows the surgeon to perform a curative limited resection of a focus without the risk of long-term diabetes. The exact preoperative planning by <sup>18</sup>F-DOPA-PET/CT computer tomography allows laparoscopic operation in selected cases with the focus in the tail and limits necessity to open the pancreatic duct in cases with focus in the head. Patients with persistent CHI should be managed within a strong network of diagnostic, treatment, and research institutions.