Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found

Whole Grains: Benefits and Challenges

Read this article at

ScienceOpenPublisher
Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Inclusion of whole grains (WG) in the diet is recommended in dietary guidance around the world because of their associations with increased health and reduced risk of chronic disease. WGs are linked to reduced risk of obesity or weight gain; reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and stroke; improved gut health and decreased risk of cancers of the upper gut; perhaps reduced risk of colorectal cancer; and lower mortality rate. The 2005 United States Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that consumers make “half their grains whole.” Yet, whole grains are puzzling both consumers and scientists. Scientists are trying to determine whether their health benefits are due to the synergy of WG components, individual WG components, or the fact that WG eaters make many of the recommended diet and lifestyle choices. Consumers need to understand the WG benefits and how to identify WG foods to have incentive to purchase and use such foods. Industry needs to develop great-tasting, clearly-labeled products. With both these factors working together, it will be possible to change WG consumption habits among consumers.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 87

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group.

      It is known that obesity, sodium intake, and alcohol consumption factors influence blood pressure. In this clinical trial, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, we assessed the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. We enrolled 459 adults with systolic blood pressures of less than 160 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressures of 80 to 95 mm Hg. For three weeks, the subjects were fed a control diet that was low in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, with a fat content typical of the average diet in the United States. They were then randomly assigned to receive for eight weeks the control diet, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, or a "combination" diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and with reduced saturated and total fat. Sodium intake and body weight were maintained at constant levels. At base line, the mean (+/-SD) systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 131.3+/-10.8 mm Hg and 84.7+/-4.7 mm Hg, respectively. The combination diet reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.5 and 3.0 mm Hg more, respectively, than the control diet (P or =140 mm Hg; diastolic pressure, > or =90 mm Hg; or both), the combination diet reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 11.4 and 5.5 mm Hg more, respectively, than the control diet (P<0.001 for each); among the 326 subjects without hypertension, the corresponding reductions were 3.5 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 2.1 mm Hg (P=0.003). A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods and with reduced saturated and total fat can substantially lower blood pressure. This diet offers an additional nutritional approach to preventing and treating hypertension.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Dietary fiber and body weight.

        This review provides an update of recent studies of dietary fiber and weight and includes a discussion of potential mechanisms of how dietary fiber can aid weight loss and weight maintenance. Human studies published on dietary fiber and body weight were reviewed and summarized. Dietary fiber content of popular low-carbohydrate diets were calculated and are presented. Epidemiologic support that dietary fiber intake prevents obesity is strong. Fiber intake is inversely associated with body weight and body fat. In addition, fiber intake is inversely associated with body mass index at all levels of fat intake after adjusting for confounding factors. Results from intervention studies are more mixed, although the addition of dietary fiber generally decreases food intake and, hence, body weight. Many mechanisms have been suggested for how dietary fiber aids in weight management, including promoting satiation, decreasing absorption of macronutrients, and altering secretion of gut hormones. The average fiber intake of adults in the United States is less than half recommended levels and is lower still among those who follow currently popular low-carbohydrate diets, such as Atkins and South Beach. Increasing consumption of dietary fiber with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes across the life cycle is a critical step in stemming the epidemic of obesity found in developed countries. The addition of functional fiber to weight-loss diets should also be considered as a tool to improve success.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study.

          Dietary fibre is thought to protect against colorectal cancer but this view has been challenged by recent prospective and intervention studies that showed no protective effect. We prospectively examined the association between dietary fibre intake and incidence of colorectal cancer in 519978 individuals aged 25-70 years taking part in the EPIC study, recruited from ten European countries. Participants completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-98 and were followed up for cancer incidence. Relative risk estimates were obtained from fibre intake, categorised by sex-specific, cohort-wide quintiles, and from linear models relating the hazard ratio to fibre intake expressed as a continuous variable. Follow-up consisted of 1939011 person-years, and data for 1065 reported cases of colorectal cancer were included in the analysis. Dietary fibre in foods was inversely related to incidence of large bowel cancer (adjusted relative risk 0.75 [95% CI 0.59-0.95] for the highest versus lowest quintile of intake), the protective effect being greatest for the left side of the colon, and least for the rectum. After calibration with more detailed dietary data, the adjusted relative risk for the highest versus lowest quintile of fibre from food intake was 0.58 (0.41-0.85). No food source of fibre was significantly more protective than others, and non-food supplement sources of fibre were not investigated. In populations with low average intake of dietary fibre, an approximate doubling of total fibre intake from foods could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 40%.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Family, Consumer, and Nutritional Sciences, St. Catherine University, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105; email:
            [2 ]Grains for Health Foundation, St. Paul, Minnesota 55121
            Journal
            Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
            Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol.
            Annual Reviews
            1941-1413
            1941-1421
            April 2010
            April 2010
            : 1
            : 1
            : 19-40
            10.1146/annurev.food.112408.132746
            © 2010

            Comments

            Comment on this article