Objective To understand the correlation between myopia related health belief and screen time of primary and secondary school students in Jing’an District of Shanghai, and to provide suggestions for reducing screen time and preventing myopia.
Methods Using the method of cluster sampling, 1 585 students from grade one to grade eight of a primary school and a junior high school in Jing’an District were selected for a questionnaire survey regarding myopia related health belief, screen time and the correlation between them.
Results About 18.8% -44.4% of the students perceived themselves as myopia susceptible, which increased with grade ( χ 2= 33.25, P<0.01), 51.5%-78.0% of the students were aware of the adverse health impart of myopia, 39.3%-55.6% of the students were aware of unhealthy behaviors associated with myopia and 48.7%-77.5% of the students. More than 47.6% of the students’ daily screen time was more than 2 h/day, and daily screen time increased with grade ( χ 2 = 12.18, P<0.01). Perceived susceptibility for myopia, awareness on adverse health impact of myopia and unhealthy behaviors associated with myopia, as well as self-efficacy associated with myopia prevention were associated with screen time of students.
Conclusion The primary and middle school students in Jing’an District show low lever of knowledge on myopia susceptibility and threat, but higher lever of knowledge on myopia severity and self-efficacy of preventing myopia. nearly half of the students use electronic screens too long or too close to their eyes. Awareness on myopia susceptibility, myopia-related behaviors and health impacts of myopia and self-efficacy, combined with screen time reduction might help myopia prevention.
【摘要】 目的 了解上海市静安区中小学生近视相关健康信念因素及其与屏幕时间的相关性, 为减少屏幕时间和预防近 视提供健康宣教相关政策建议。 方法 采用整群抽样的方法选取上海市静安区内1所小学与1所初中的一至八年级 1 585名学生进行问卷调査, 分析近视相关健康信念因素持有情况、屏幕时间情况及两者的相关性。 结果 18.8%~44.4% 的学生具备近视相关的易感性信念, 且随着年级上升而上升(χ 2 趋势= 33.25, P<0.01); 51.5%~78.0%的学生具备近视相关 严重性信念, 39.3%~55.6%的学生具备近视相关的威胁性信念, 48.7%~77.5%的学生具备预防近视相关的自我效能, 均 随年级上升而下降。超过47.6%的学生每日屏幕时间>2 h, 每日屏幕时间随着年级上升而上升 (χ 2 趋势=12.18, P<0.01)。近 视相关严重性信念、威胁性信念和自我效能认知均对学生屏幕时间情况有影响。 结论 静安区中小学生对近视易感性、威 胁性认知较差, 而对近视的严重性及预防近视的自我效能认知较好。同时, 近50%学生存在电子屏幕使用时间过长或用 眼距离过近的现象。应通过加强学生近视易感性、威胁性、预防近视自我效能的相关认知, 改善学生屏幕时间情况, 从而 预防近视的发生发展。