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      Comprehensive characterization, annotation and innovative use of Infinium DNA methylation BeadChip probes

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      Nucleic Acids Research

      Oxford University Press

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          Abstract

          Illumina Infinium DNA Methylation BeadChips represent the most widely used genome-scale DNA methylation assays. Existing strategies for masking Infinium probes overlapping repeats or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are based largely on ad hoc assumptions and subjective criteria. In addition, the recently introduced MethylationEPIC (EPIC) array expands on the utility of this platform, but has not yet been well characterized. We present in this paper an extensive characterization of probes on the EPIC and HM450 microarrays, including mappability to the latest genome build, genomic copy number of the 3΄ nested subsequence and influence of polymorphisms including a previously unrecognized color channel switch for Type I probes. We show empirical evidence for exclusion criteria for underperforming probes, providing a sounder basis than current ad hoc criteria for exclusion. In addition, we describe novel probe uses, exemplified by the addition of a total of 1052 SNP probes to the existing 59 explicit SNP probes on the EPIC array and the use of these probes to predict ethnicity. Finally, we present an innovative out-of-band color channel application for the dual use of 62 371 probes as internal bisulfite conversion controls.

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          Most cited references 12

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          High density DNA methylation array with single CpG site resolution.

          We have developed a new generation of genome-wide DNA methylation BeadChip which allows high-throughput methylation profiling of the human genome. The new high density BeadChip can assay over 480K CpG sites and analyze twelve samples in parallel. The innovative content includes coverage of 99% of RefSeq genes with multiple probes per gene, 96% of CpG islands from the UCSC database, CpG island shores and additional content selected from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data and input from DNA methylation experts. The well-characterized Infinium® Assay is used for analysis of CpG methylation using bisulfite-converted genomic DNA. We applied this technology to analyze DNA methylation in normal and tumor DNA samples and compared results with whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data obtained for the same samples. Highly comparable DNA methylation profiles were generated by the array and sequencing methods (average R2 of 0.95). The ability to determine genome-wide methylation patterns will rapidly advance methylation research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Epigenome-wide association studies for common human diseases.

            Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in identifying loci associated with common diseases, a substantial proportion of the causality remains unexplained. Recent advances in genomic technologies have placed us in a position to initiate large-scale studies of human disease-associated epigenetic variation, specifically variation in DNA methylation. Such epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) present novel opportunities but also create new challenges that are not encountered in GWASs. We discuss EWAS design, cohort and sample selections, statistical significance and power, confounding factors and follow-up studies. We also discuss how integration of EWASs with GWASs can help to dissect complex GWAS haplotypes for functional analysis.
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              Analysing and interpreting DNA methylation data.

              DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that has suspected regulatory roles in a broad range of biological processes and diseases. The technology is now available for studying DNA methylation genome-wide, at a high resolution and in a large number of samples. This Review discusses relevant concepts, computational methods and software tools for analysing and interpreting DNA methylation data. It focuses not only on the bioinformatic challenges of large epigenome-mapping projects and epigenome-wide association studies but also highlights software tools that make genome-wide DNA methylation mapping more accessible for laboratories with limited bioinformatics experience.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                28 February 2017
                24 October 2016
                24 October 2016
                : 45
                : 4
                : e22
                Affiliations
                Center for Epigenetics, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Ave NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 616 234 5362; Fax: +1 616 234 5562; Email: Hui.Shen@ 123456vai.org
                Article
                gkw967
                10.1093/nar/gkw967
                5389466
                27924034
                © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Product
                Categories
                Methods Online

                Genetics

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