Ethanolic fraction of Moroccan Cannabis sativa threshing residues (EFCS) was evaluated for its vasorelaxant activity. The current work aims to identify the active metabolites in the ethanolic fraction of the EFCS and illustrate their mechanism of action.
Free radical scavenging capacity of EFCS was assessed using DPPH method. The EFCS vasodilation activities in phenylephrine-precontracted isolated rat mesenteric arterial beds were investigated in presence of L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), potassium channel blockers (namely tetraetylamonium, barium chloride, and glibenclamide), and atropine. Nitric oxide vascular release was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) using a spin trap in rat aortic rings.
EFCS induced dose-dependent vasorelaxation on mesenteric vascular bed. Incubation of the preparations with L-NAME, ODQ (a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), or potassium channel blockers reduced the fall of perfusion pressure caused by EFCS. Endothelial denudation or atropine abolished the EFCS's vasorelaxant effect, suggesting involvement of muscarinic receptors and endothelium-relaxing factors. The extract induced nitric oxide release in aortic rings in a similar manner as acetylcholine suggesting an effect of EFCS on the muscarinic receptor and the conductance arteries. Chemical investigation of EFCS identified potential active components namely apigenin and derivatives of luteolin skeleton and also additional components such as neophytadiene, squalene, and β-sitosterol. In conclusion, the vasorelaxant effect of EFCS on rat mesenteric arterial bed, which is dependent of muscarinic receptor activation, nitric oxide, and EDHF, can account for potential therapeutic use against high blood pressure related cardiovascular diseases.