We present a taxonomic synopsis of the South American genus Schizanthus Ruiz & Pav. ( Solanaceae ), within which we recognise seventeen taxa (14 species with three infraspecific taxa). The genus is mainly distributed in Chile between the coast of the Atacama Desert and the southern temperate forests, while two species occur in the Argentinian Provinces of Mendoza and Neuquén. This taxonomic treatment is based on the analysis of herbarium specimens from 30 different herbaria. For each accepted species we provide details of type specimens and synonymy, key characters, habitat, distribution information and presence in public or private protected areas. We also incorporate a list of representative localities from examined material. We here described three new taxa: Schizanthus porrigens subsp. borealis V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, subsp. nov., Schizanthus carlomunozii V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, sp. nov. and its variety Schizanthus carlomunozii var. dilutimaculatus V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, var. nov., all of them from the coast of Coquimbo Region. We also recognise Schizanthus litoralis var. humilis (Lindl.) V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, comb. nov., as a new combination.