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      Synopsis of Schizanthus Ruiz & Pav. (Solanaceae), a genus endemic to the southern Andes

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          Abstract

          We present a taxonomic synopsis of the South American genus Schizanthus Ruiz & Pav. ( Solanaceae ), within which we recognise seventeen taxa (14 species with three infraspecific taxa). The genus is mainly distributed in Chile between the coast of the Atacama Desert and the southern temperate forests, while two species occur in the Argentinian Provinces of Mendoza and Neuquén. This taxonomic treatment is based on the analysis of herbarium specimens from 30 different herbaria. For each accepted species we provide details of type specimens and synonymy, key characters, habitat, distribution information and presence in public or private protected areas. We also incorporate a list of representative localities from examined material. We here described three new taxa: Schizanthus porrigens Graham ex Hook. subsp. borealis V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, subsp. nov., Schizanthus carlomunozii V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, sp. nov. and its variety Schizanthus carlomunozii var. dilutimaculatus V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, var. nov., all of them from the coast of Coquimbo Region. We also recognise Schizanthus litoralis Phil. var. humilis (Lindl.) V.Morales & Muñoz-Schick, comb. nov., as a new combination.

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          Most cited references 29

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          A phylogenetic framework for evolutionary study of the nightshades (Solanaceae): a dated 1000-tip tree

          Background The Solanaceae is a plant family of great economic importance. Despite a wealth of phylogenetic work on individual clades and a deep knowledge of particular cultivated species such as tomato and potato, a robust evolutionary framework with a dated molecular phylogeny for the family is still lacking. Here we investigate molecular divergence times for Solanaceae using a densely-sampled species-level phylogeny. We also review the fossil record of the family to derive robust calibration points, and estimate a chronogram using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock. Results Our densely-sampled phylogeny shows strong support for all previously identified clades of Solanaceae and strongly supported relationships between the major clades, particularly within Solanum. The Tomato clade is shown to be sister to section Petota, and the Regmandra clade is the first branching member of the Potato clade. The minimum age estimates for major splits within the family provided here correspond well with results from previous studies, indicating splits between tomato & potato around 8 Million years ago (Ma) with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) 7–10 Ma, Solanum & Capsicum c. 19 Ma (95% HPD 17–21), and Solanum & Nicotiana c. 24 Ma (95% HPD 23–26). Conclusions Our large time-calibrated phylogeny provides a significant step towards completing a fully sampled species-level phylogeny for Solanaceae, and provides age estimates for the whole family. The chronogram now includes 40% of known species and all but two monotypic genera, and is one of the best sampled angiosperm family phylogenies both in terms of taxon sampling and resolution published thus far. The increased resolution in the chronogram combined with the large increase in species sampling will provide much needed data for the examination of many biological questions using Solanaceae as a model system.
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            International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

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              A molecular phylogeny of the Solanaceae

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2020
                04 August 2020
                : 154
                : 57-102
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Independent researcher. Avenida Vicuña Mackenna Oriente 6640, Santiago, Chile Unafiliated Santiago Chile
                [2 ] Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Casilla 787, Santiago, Chile Museo Nacional de Historia Natural Santiago Chile
                [3 ] Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2241, Valparaíso, Chile Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Valparaíso Chile
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Andrés Moreira-Muñoz ( andres.moreira@ 123456pucv.cl )

                Academic editor: S. Knapp

                Article
                49615
                10.3897/phytokeys.154.49615
                7419342
                Vanezza Morales-Fierro, Mélica Muñoz-Schick, Andrés Moreira-Muñoz

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Proyecto Conicyt-Fondecyt 1180211 “Rand Flora of Atacama”.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Solanaceae
                Biogeography
                Species Inventories
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Americas
                Andes
                Argentina
                Chile
                South America

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