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      Identification of a novel SERPINA-1 mutation causing alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in a patient with severe bronchiectasis and pulmonary embolism

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          Abstract

          Deficiency in the serine protease inhibitor, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), is known to cause emphysema and liver disease. Other manifestations, including airway disease or skin disorders, have also been described. A 44-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with dyspnea and respiratory insufficiency. She had never smoked, and had been diagnosed with COPD 9 years earlier. Three months previously, she had suffered a pulmonary embolism. Chest computed tomography scan revealed severe cystic bronchiectasis with destruction of the lung parenchyma. The sweat test was normal and there was no evidence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR) mutation. Capillary zone electrophoresis showed a decrease of alpha-1 globin band and AAT levels were below the quantification limit (<25 mg/dL). No S or Z mutation was identified, but sequencing analysis found a homozygous cytosine and adenine (CA) insertion in exon 2 of the SERPINA-1 gene, probably leading to a dysfunctional protein (PI Null/Null). This mutation has not been previously identified. The atypical presentation of the patient, with severe cystic bronchiectasis, highlights AAT deficiency as a differential diagnosis in bronchiectasis. Further, awareness should be raised regarding a possible increased risk of thromboembolism associated with AAT deficiency.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Clinical practice. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

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            Augmentation therapy for alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency: a meta-analysis.

            Augmentation with exogenous alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) is the only specific therapy for alpha1-AT deficiency. Uncertainty persists concerning its effectiveness. To test the hypothesis that augmentation therapy in patients with alpha1-AT deficiency slows the decline in FEV1. Randomized and nonrandomized clinical studies with either parallel-group design or single cohort pre-post design were eligible if they compared augmentation therapy with a control regimen and if long-term (> 1 y) longitudinal FEV1 follow-up data were collected. FEV1 data from five trials with 1509 patients were combined by random effects meta-analysis. The decline in FEV1 was slower by 23% (absolute difference, 13.4 ml/year; CI, 1.5 to 25.3 ml/year) among all patients receiving augmentation therapy. This overall protective effect reflected predominantly the results in the subset of patients with baseline FEV1 30-65% of predicted. In that subset, augmentation was associated with a 26% reduction in rate of FEV1 decline (absolute difference, 17.9 ml/year; CI, 9.6 to 26.1 ml/year). Similar trends amongst patients with baseline FEV1 percent of predicted 65% were not statistically significant. This meta-analysis supports the conclusion that augmentation can slow lung function decline in patients with AAT deficiency Patients with moderate obstruction are most likely to benefit.
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              Therapeutic efficacy of alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy on the loss of lung tissue: an integrated analysis of 2 randomised clinical trials using computed tomography densitometry

              Background Two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have investigated the efficacy of IV alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy on emphysema progression using CT densitometry. Methods Data from these similar trials, a 2-center Danish-Dutch study (n = 54) and the 3-center EXAcerbations and CT scan as Lung Endpoints (EXACTLE) study (n = 65), were pooled to increase the statistical power. The change in 15th percentile of lung density (PD15) measured by CT scan was obtained from both trials. All subjects had 1 CT scan at baseline and at least 1 CT scan after treatment. Densitometric data from 119 patients (AAT [Alfalastin® or Prolastin®], n = 60; placebo, n = 59) were analysed by a statistical/endpoint analysis method. To adjust for lung volume, volume correction was made by including the change in log-transformed total lung volume as a covariate in the statistical model. Results Mean follow-up was approximately 2.5 years. The mean change in lung density from baseline to last CT scan was -4.082 g/L for AAT and -6.379 g/L for placebo with a treatment difference of 2.297 (95% CI, 0.669 to 3.926; p = 0.006). The corresponding annual declines were -1.73 and -2.74 g/L/yr, respectively. Conclusions The overall results of the combined analysis of 2 separate trials of comparable design, and the only 2 controlled clinical trials completed to date, has confirmed that IV AAT augmentation therapy significantly reduces the decline in lung density and may therefore reduce the future risk of mortality in patients with AAT deficiency-related emphysema. Trial registration The EXACTLE study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as 'Antitrypsin (AAT) to Treat Emphysema in AAT-Deficient Patients'; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00263887.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                07 May 2015
                : 10
                : 891-897
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Munich, Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Munich, Germany
                [2 ]Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Katrin Milger, Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Munich, Ziemssenstrasse 1, 80336 Munich, Germany, Tel +49 89 44005 7467, Email katrin.milger@ 123456med.uni-muenchen.de
                Article
                copd-10-891
                10.2147/COPD.S80173
                4428364
                26005342
                © 2015 Milger et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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