Morphoconstitutional analysis of urinary calculi, i.e. morphologic examination combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), is of decisive interest for the diagnosis of rare but severe inherited or acquired stone diseases such as cystine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, xanthine, struvite, ammonium urate or drug-containing calculi as well as primary hyperoxalurias. In the absence of early diagnosis and proper management, these diseases may lead to progressive loss of renal function. Among common forms of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, predominant CaOx monohydrate (whewellite) is mainly associated with hyperoxaluric conditions whereas predominant CaOx dihydrate (weddellite) is mainly associated with hypercalciuria, and this distinction is of interest to orient metabolic evaluation and preventive measures. Crystalluria examination, also based on morphology and FTIR, is a valuable diagnostic method when no stone is available for analysis. Presence of specific crystals (cystine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, struvite, ammonium urate) is diagnostic by itself. In all types of nephrolithiasis, serial crystalluria determination appears as a simple, cheap and reliable method to evaluate the risk of stone formation and assess the effectiveness of preventive measures. Determination of urinary crystal volume was in our experience a useful tool in the management of patients with cystinuria or primary hyperoxaluria in the post-transplantation period. In conclusion, both accurate morphologic and FTIR analysis of stones and serial crystalluria determination should be more largely used, in view of their value in the diagnosis and management of renal stone formers.