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      Alternative glacial-interglacial refugia demographic hypotheses tested on Cephalocereus columna-trajani (Cactaceae) in the intertropical Mexican drylands

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          Abstract

          Historic demography changes of plant species adapted to New World arid environments could be consistent with either the Glacial Refugium Hypothesis (GRH), which posits that populations contracted to refuges during the cold-dry glacial and expanded in warm-humid interglacial periods, or with the Interglacial Refugium Hypothesis (IRH), which suggests that populations contracted during interglacials and expanded in glacial times. These contrasting hypotheses are developed in the present study for the giant columnar cactus Cephalocereus columna-trajani in the intertropical Mexican drylands where the effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes on phylogeography of cacti remain largely unknown. In order to determine if the historic demography and phylogeographic structure of the species are consistent with either hypothesis, sequences of the chloroplast regions psbA-trnH and trnT-trnL from 110 individuals from 10 populations comprising the full distribution range of this species were analysed. Standard estimators of genetic diversity and structure were calculated. The historic demography was analysed using a Bayesian approach and the palaeodistribution was derived from ecological niche modelling to determine if, in the arid environments of south-central Mexico, glacial-interglacial cycles drove the genetic divergence and diversification of this species. Results reveal low but statistically significant population differentiation ( F ST = 0.124, P < 0.001), although very clear geographic clusters are not formed. Genetic diversity, haplotype network and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) demographic analyses suggest a population expansion estimated to have taken place in the Last Interglacial (123.04 kya, 95% CI 115.3–130.03). The species palaeodistribution is consistent with the ABC analyses and indicates that the potential area of palaedistribution and climatic suitability were larger during the Last Interglacial and Holocene than in the Last Glacial Maximum. Overall, these results suggest that C. columna-trajani experienced an expansion following the warm conditions of interglacials, in accordance with the GRH.

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          Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA.

          Six primers for the amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been designed. In order to find out whether these primers were universal, we used them in an attempt to amplify DNA from various plant species. The primers worked for most species tested including algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. The fact that they amplify chloroplast DNA non-coding regions over a wide taxonomic range means that these primers may be used to study the population biology (in supplying markers) and evolution (inter- and probably intraspecific phylogenies) of plants.
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            Modificaciones al Sistema de clasificación climática de Koppen.

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              Speciation in amazonian forest birds.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                20 April 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departamento de Zoología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CD México, México
                [2 ]Department of Geography, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
                [3 ]Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, CD México, México
                [4 ]Departamento de Hidrobiología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, CD México, México
                [5 ]Escuela de Biología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, México
                National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: ACR CFVM JMS.

                • Data curation: ACR GFAM.

                • Formal analysis: ACR CFVM GFAM.

                • Funding acquisition: PLV CFVM.

                • Investigation: ACR CFVM BRA PLV JAZH.

                • Methodology: ACR AS.

                • Project administration: CFVM PLV.

                • Resources: ACR SRA MAPH GLO CJS.

                • Software: ACR GFAM.

                • Supervision: CFVM.

                • Validation: ACR CFVM.

                • Writing – original draft: ACR CFVM JMS.

                • Writing – review & editing: ACR CFVM JMS.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-50517
                10.1371/journal.pone.0175905
                5398652
                28426818
                © 2017 Cornejo-Romero et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: FOSEMARNAT
                Award ID: 2004-01-26
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: SIP-IPN
                Award ID: 20150755
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: CONACYT
                Award ID: No.252478
                Award Recipient :
                ACR was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología of México (CONACYT) with a post-doctoral scholarship (no. 252478). CONACYT provided support for this study by financing the project FOSEMARNAT-2004-01-26, and SIP-IPN financing the project 20150755.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Climatology
                Paleoclimatology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Paleontology
                Paleoclimatology
                Earth Sciences
                Paleontology
                Paleoclimatology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biogeography
                Phylogeography
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Biogeography
                Phylogeography
                Earth Sciences
                Geography
                Biogeography
                Phylogeography
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                Evolutionary Biology
                Population Genetics
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                Genetics
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                Custom metadata
                Data are available from NCBI GenBank database (accession numbers KY363333-KY363338).

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