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Antenatal Care as a Means of Increasing Birth in the Health Facility and Reducing Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review

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      Although there is a general agreement on the importance of antenatal care to improve the maternal and perinatal health, little is known about its importance to improve health facility delivery in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the association of antenatal care with birth in health facility.


      A systematic review with meta-analysis of Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios was conducted by including seventeen small scale studies that compared antenatal care and health facility delivery between 2003 and 2013. Additionally, national survey data of African countries which included antenatal care, health facility delivery and maternal mortality in their report were included. Data were accessed via a computer based search from MEDLINE, African Journals Online, HINARI and Google Scholar databases.


      The regression analysis of antenatal care with health facility delivery revealed a positive correlation. The pooled analysis also demonstrated that woman attending antenatal care had more than 7 times increased chance of delivering in a health facility. The comparative descriptive analysis, however, demonstrated a big gap between the proportion of antenatal care and health facility delivery by the same individuals (27%–95% vs 4%–45%). Antenatal care and health facility delivery had negative correlation with maternal mortality.


      The present regression and meta-analysis has identified the relative advantage of having antenatal care to give birth in health facilities. However, the majority of women who had antenatal care did not show up to a health facility for delivery. Therefore, future research needs to give emphasis to identifying barriers to health facility delivery despite having antenatal care follow up.

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      Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5.

      Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems worldwide. Reliable information about the rates and trends in maternal mortality is essential for resource mobilisation, and for planning and assessment of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5), the target for which is a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from 1990 to 2015. We assessed levels and trends in maternal mortality for 181 countries. We constructed a database of 2651 observations of maternal mortality for 181 countries for 1980-2008, from vital registration data, censuses, surveys, and verbal autopsy studies. We used robust analytical methods to generate estimates of maternal deaths and the MMR for each year between 1980 and 2008. We explored the sensitivity of our data to model specification and show the out-of-sample predictive validity of our methods. We estimated that there were 342,900 (uncertainty interval 302,100-394,300) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008, down from 526,300 (446,400-629,600) in 1980. The global MMR decreased from 422 (358-505) in 1980 to 320 (272-388) in 1990, and was 251 (221-289) per 100,000 livebirths in 2008. The yearly rate of decline of the global MMR since 1990 was 1.3% (1.0-1.5). During 1990-2008, rates of yearly decline in the MMR varied between countries, from 8.8% (8.7-14.1) in the Maldives to an increase of 5.5% (5.2-5.6) in Zimbabwe. More than 50% of all maternal deaths were in only six countries in 2008 (India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). In the absence of HIV, there would have been 281 500 (243,900-327,900) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008. Substantial, albeit varied, progress has been made towards MDG 5. Although only 23 countries are on track to achieve a 75% decrease in MMR by 2015, countries such as Egypt, China, Ecuador, and Bolivia have been achieving accelerated progress. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Determinants of use of maternal health services in Nigeria - looking beyond individual and household factors

        Background Utilization of maternal health services is associated with improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Considering global and national interests in the Millennium Development Goal and Nigeria's high level of maternal mortality, understanding the factors affecting maternal health use is crucial. Studies on the use of maternal care services have largely overlooked community and other contextual factors. This study examined the determinants of maternal services utilization in Nigeria, with a focus on individual, household, community and state-level factors. Methods Data from the 2005 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey - an interviewer-administered nationally representative survey - were analyzed to identify individual, household and community factors that were significantly associated with utilization of maternal care services among 2148 women who had a baby during the five years preceding the survey. In view of the nested nature of the data, we used multilevel analytic methods and assessed state-level random effects. Results Approximately three-fifths (60.3%) of the mothers used antenatal services at least once during their most recent pregnancy, while 43.5% had skilled attendants at delivery and 41.2% received postnatal care. There are commonalities and differences in the predictors of the three indicators of maternal health service utilization. Education is the only individual-level variable that is consistently a significant predictor of service utilization, while socio-economic level is a consistent significant predictor at the household level. At the community level, urban residence and community media saturation are consistently strong predictors. In contrast, some factors are significant in predicting one or more of the indicators of use but not for all. These inconsistent predictors include some individual level variables (the woman's age at the birth of the last child, ethnicity, the notion of ideal family size, and approval of family planning), a community-level variable (prevalence of the small family norm in the community), and a state-level variable (ratio of PHC to the population). Conclusion Factors influencing maternal health services utilization operate at various levels - individual, household, community and state. Depending on the indicator of maternal health services, the relevant determinants vary. Effective interventions to promote maternal health service utilization should target the underlying individual, household, community and policy-level factors. The interventions should reflect the relative roles of the various underlying factors.
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          Ethiopia demographic and health survey 2011


            Author and article information

            [1 ]Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Gynecology-Obstetrics
            [2 ]Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacology
            Author notes
            Corresponding Author: Yifru Berhan, yifrub@
            Ethiop J Health Sci
            Ethiop J Health Sci
            Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
            Research and Publications Office of Jimma University (Jimma, Ethiopia )
            September 2014
            : 24
            : 0 Suppl
            : 93-104
            25489186 4249212 jEJHS.v24.i0S.pg93
            Copyright © Jimma University, Research & Publications Office 2014


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