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      Risk factors for immediate postpolypectomy bleeding of the colon: a multicenter study.

      The American Journal of Gastroenterology

      Prospective Studies, Middle Aged, Male, Logistic Models, Incidence, Humans, etiology, epidemiology, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, Female, Cross-Sectional Studies, adverse effects, Colonoscopy, surgery, diagnosis, Colonic Polyps, Chi-Square Distribution, Aged, Risk Factors

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          Abstract

          The aims of this prospective study were to document the incidence of colon immediate postpolypectomy bleeding (IPPB) according to grade, and to identify potential risk factors of IPPB in patients who have received complete colonoscopy and polypectomy because of a colorectal polyp. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 5,152 patients treated at 11 tertiary medical centers between July 2003 and July 2004. Patient-related, polyp-related, and procedure-related variables were evaluated as potential risk factors for IPPB. IPPB was defined as a bleeding occurring during the procedure and was graded as G1-G4. Risk factors associated with IPPB were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 9,336 colonic polyps were removed in 5,152 patients, and 262 (2.8%) colorectal polyps in 215 patients presented with IPPB. Polyp-based multivariate analysis revealed that old age (>or=65 yr), comorbid cardiovascular or chronic renal disease, anticoagulant use, polyp size greater than 1 cm, gross morphology of polyps such as pedunculated polyp or laterally spreading tumor, poorer bowel preparation, cutting mode of the electrosurgical current, and the inadvertent cutting of a polyp before current application were significant risk factors for IPPB. Nine factors have been found to be associated with IPPB and polypectomy should be undertaken with caution under these conditions.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy. The National Polyp Study Workgroup.

          The current practice of removing adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum is based on the belief that this will prevent colorectal cancer. To address the hypothesis that colonoscopic polypectomy reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer, we analyzed the results of the National Polyp Study with reference to other published results. The study cohort consisted of 1418 patients who had a complete colonoscopy during which one or more adenomas of the colon or rectum were removed. The patients subsequently underwent periodic colonoscopy during an average follow-up of 5.9 years, and the incidence of colorectal cancer was ascertained. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer was compared with that in three reference groups, including two cohorts in which colonic polyps were not removed and one general-population registry, after adjustment for sex, age, and polyp size. Ninety-seven percent of the patients were followed clinically for a total of 8401 person-years, and 80 percent returned for one or more of their scheduled colonoscopies. Five asymptomatic early-stage colorectal cancers (malignant polyps) were detected by colonoscopy (three at three years, one at six years, and one at seven years). No symptomatic cancers were detected. The numbers of colorectal cancers expected on the basis of the rates in the three reference groups were 48.3, 43.4, and 20.7, for reductions in the incidence of colorectal cancer of 90, 88, and 76 percent, respectively (P < 0.001). Colonoscopic polypectomy resulted in a lower-than-expected incidence of colorectal cancer. These results support the view that colorectal adenomas progress to adenocarcinomas, as well as the current practice of searching for and removing adenomatous polyps to prevent colorectal cancer.
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            The effect of fecal occult-blood screening on the incidence of colorectal cancer.

            Both annual testing for fecal occult blood and biennial testing significantly reduce mortality from colorectal cancer. However, the effect of screening on the incidence of colorectal cancer remains uncertain, despite the diagnosis and removal of precancerous lesions in many persons who undergo screening. We followed the participants in the Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study for 18 years. A total of 46,551 people, most of whom were 50 to 80 years old, were enrolled between 1975 and 1978 and randomly assigned to annual screening, biennial screening, or usual care (the control group). Those assigned to the screening groups were asked to prepare and submit two samples from each of three consecutive stools for guaiac-based testing. Those with at least one positive slide in the set of six were offered a diagnostic examination that included colonoscopy. Screening was conducted between 1976 and 1982 and again between 1986 and 1992. Study participants have been followed with respect to newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer and deaths. Follow-up has been more than 90 percent complete. During the 18-year follow-up period, we identified 1359 new cases of colorectal cancer: 417 in the annual-screening group, 435 in the biennial-screening group, and 507 in the control group. The cumulative incidence ratios for colorectal cancer in the screening groups as compared with the control group were 0.80 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.90) and 0.83 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.94) for the annual-screening and biennial-screening groups, respectively. For both screening groups, the number of positive slides was associated with the positive predictive value both for colorectal cancer and for adenomatous polyps at least 1 cm in diameter. The use of either annual or biennial fecal occult-blood testing significantly reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer.
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              Hemorrhage following colonoscopic polypectomy.

              Clinically significant hemorrhage following colonoscopic polypectomy may occur primarily as the polyp is removed or manifest itself days to weeks later secondary to clot dissolution. The rate of hemorrhage following colonoscopic polypectomy ranges widely from 0.3 to 6.1 percent, depending on whether the data are derived from studies using the number of patients or number of polypectomies. A retrospective study was performed in our institution to study 4,721 patients who underwent polypectomy between January 1987 and December 1991. Twenty (0.4 percent) of these patients required hospital admission because of 9 primary and 11 delayed hemorrhages. Fifty-four polyps were removed from these patients: 11 in the right colon, 7 in the transverse colon, 17 in the descending colon, and 19 in the sigmoid colon. Eight polyps were 2 cm or larger, 10 were pedunculated, and 44 were sessile. Six patients underwent cauterization or resnaring of the bleeding polyp site, one patient underwent subtotal colectomy, and the remainder of the patients stopped bleeding spontaneously. Factors that could be associated with the outcome of hemorrhage include patient age, size, location, number and morphology of polyps (i.e., sessile or thick stalk), and use of anticoagulants. An experienced endoscopist with knowledge of electrosurgical and technical principles may be the most important factor for prevention of postpolypectomy bleeding.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                16771958
                10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00638.x

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