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      A Genotype-Guided Strategy for Oral P2Y12 Inhibitors in Primary PCI

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          Abstract

          It is unknown whether patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) benefit from genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitors.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy.

          Clopidogrel therapy improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes and following percutaneous coronary intervention by inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-dependent platelet activation. However, nonresponsiveness is widely recognized and is related to recurrent ischemic events. To identify gene variants that influence clopidogrel response. In the Pharmacogenomics of Antiplatelet Intervention (PAPI) Study (2006-2008), we administered clopidogrel for 7 days to 429 healthy Amish persons and measured response by ex vivo platelet aggregometry. A genome-wide association study was performed followed by genotyping the loss-of-function cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19*2 variant (rs4244285). Findings in the PAPI Study were extended by examining the relation of CYP2C19*2 genotype to platelet function and cardiovascular outcomes in an independent sample of 227 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation in response to clopidogrel treatment and cardiovascular events. Platelet response to clopidogrel was highly heritable (h(2) = 0.73; P < .001). Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 10q24 within the CYP2C18-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP2C8 cluster were associated with diminished clopidogrel response, with a high degree of statistical significance (P = 1.5 x 10(-13) for rs12777823, additive model). The rs12777823 polymorphism was in strong linkage disequilibrium with the CYP2C19*2 variant, and was associated with diminished clopidogrel response, accounting for 12% of the variation in platelet aggregation to ADP (P = 4.3 x 10(-11)). The relation between CYP2C19*2 genotype and platelet aggregation was replicated in clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing coronary intervention (P = .02). Furthermore, patients with the CYP2C19*2 variant were more likely (20.9% vs 10.0%) to have a cardiovascular ischemic event or death during 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-4.99; P = .02). CYP2C19*2 genotype was associated with diminished platelet response to clopidogrel treatment and poorer cardiovascular outcomes.
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            Reduced-function CYP2C19 genotype and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients treated with clopidogrel predominantly for PCI: a meta-analysis.

            Clopidogrel, one of the most commonly prescribed medications, is a prodrug requiring CYP450 biotransformation. Data suggest its pharmacologic effect varies based on CYP2C19 genotype, but there is uncertainty regarding the clinical risk imparted by specific genotypes. To define the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes among carriers of 1 (≈ 26% prevalence in whites) and carriers of 2 (≈ 2% prevalence in whites) reduced-function CYP2C19 genetic variants in patients treated with clopidogrel. A literature search was conducted (January 2000-August 2010) in MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EMBASE. Genetic studies were included in which clopidogrel was initiated in predominantly invasively managed patients in a manner consistent with the current guideline recommendations and in which clinical outcomes were ascertained. Investigators from 9 studies evaluating CYP2C19 genotype and clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel contributed the relevant hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for specific cardiovascular outcomes by genotype. Among 9685 patients (91.3% who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and 54.5% who had an acute coronary syndrome), 863 experienced the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; and 84 patients had stent thrombosis among the 5894 evaluated for such. Overall, 71.5% were noncarriers, 26.3% had 1 reduced-function CYP2C19 allele, and 2.2% had 2 reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles. A significantly increased risk of the composite end point was evident in both carriers of 1 (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.11-2.17; P = .01) and 2 (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.24-2.50; P = .002) reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles, as compared with noncarriers. Similarly, there was a significantly increased risk of stent thrombosis in both carriers of 1 (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.69-4.22; P < .0001) and 2 (HR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.75-9.02; P = .001) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles, as compared with noncarriers. Among patients treated with clopidogrel for percutaneous coronary intervention, carriage of even 1 reduced-function CYP2C19 allele appears to be associated with a significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, particularly stent thrombosis.
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              Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial.

              In the PLATO trial of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for treatment of acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor reduced the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, but increased events of major bleeding related to non-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes are known to influence the effects of clopidogrel. In this substudy, we investigated the effects of these genotypes on outcomes between and within treatment groups. DNA samples obtained from patients in the PLATO trial were genotyped for CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *7, and *8), the CYP2C19 gain-of-function allele *17, and the ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphism 3435C→T. For the CYP2C19 genotype, patients were stratified by the presence or absence of any loss-of-function allele, and for the ABCB1 genotype, patients were stratified by predicted gene expression (high, intermediate, or low). The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke after up to 12 months' treatment with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. 10 285 patients provided samples for genetic analysis. The primary outcome occurred less often with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype: 8·6% versus 11·2% (hazard ratio 0·77, 95% CI 0·60-0·99, p=0·0380) in patients with any loss-of-function allele; and 8·8% versus 10·0% (0·86, 0·74-1·01, p=0·0608) in those without any loss-of-function allele (interaction p=0·46). For the ABCB1 genotype, event rates for the primary outcome were also consistently lower in the ticagrelor than in the clopidogrel group for all genotype groups (interaction p=0·39; 8·8%vs 11·9%; 0·71, 0·55-0·92 for the high-expression genotype). In the clopidogrel group, the event rate at 30 days was higher in patients with than in those without any loss-of-function CYP2C19 alleles (5·7%vs 3·8%, p=0·028), leading to earlier separation of event rates between treatment groups in patients with loss-of-function alleles. Patients on clopidogrel who had any gain-of-function CYP2C19 allele had a higher frequency of major bleeding (11·9%) than did those without any gain-of-function or loss-of-function alleles (9·5%; p=0·022), but interaction between treatment and genotype groups was not significant for any type of major bleeding. Ticagrelor is a more efficacious treatment for acute coronary syndromes than is clopidogrel, irrespective of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 polymorphisms. Use of ticagrelor instead of clopidogrel eliminates the need for presently recommended genetic testing before dual antiplatelet treatment. AstraZeneca. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                October 24 2019
                October 24 2019
                : 381
                : 17
                : 1621-1631
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (D.M.F.C., G.J.A.V., T.O.B., P.W.A.J., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H., A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Maastricht, Maastricht (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen (P.H., J.M.B.), the Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (M.J.P.),...
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1907096
                31479209
                © 2019
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