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Access to social capital and risk of HIV infection in Bukoba urban district, Kagera region, Tanzania

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      Abstract

      BackgroundKagera is one of the 22 regions of Tanzania mainland, which has witnessed a decline in HIV prevalence during the past two decades; decreasing from 24% in 1987 to 4.7 in 2009 in the urban district of Bukoba. Access to social capital, both structural and cognitive, might have played a role in this development. The aim was to examine the association between individual structural and cognitive social capital and socio-economic characteristics and the likelihood of being HIV infected.MethodsWe conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 3586 participants, of which 3423 (95%) agreed to test for HIV following pre-test counseling. The HIV testing was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody detection tests. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the impact of socio-economic factors, individual structural and cognitive social capital and HIV sero-status.ResultsIndividuals who had access to low levels of both structural and cognitive individual social capital were four and three times more likely to be HIV positive compared to individuals who had access to high levels. The associations remained statistically significant for both individual structural and cognitive social capital after adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, level of education and wealth index (OR =8.6, CI: 5.7-13.0 and OR =2.4, CI: 1.6-3.5 for individual structural and cognitive social capital respectively). For both women and men access to high levels of individual structural and cognitive social capital decreased the risk of being HIV infected. This study confirms previous qualitative studies indicating that access to structural and cognitive social capital is protective to HIV infection.ConclusionsWe suggest that policy makers and programme managers of HIV interventions may consider strengthening and facilitating access to social capital as a way of promoting HIV preventive information and interventions in order to reduce new HIV infections in Tanzania.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Department of Development Studies, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, PO Box 65454, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
            [ ]Department of Clinical Sciences, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Malmö, SE-205 02 Sweden
            [ ]Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, SE-901 85 Sweden
            [ ]Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, PO Box 65015, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
            [ ]Department of Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, PO Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
            Contributors
            frumencegasto@yahoo.co.uk
            maria.emmelin@med.lu.se
            Malin.Eriksson@epiph.umu.se.umu.se
            gkwesigabo@yahoo.com
            jkillewo@yahoo.co.uk
            smoyo@muhas.ac.tz
            Lennarth.Nystrom@epiph.umu.se
            Journal
            Arch Public Health
            Arch Public Health
            Archives of Public Health
            BioMed Central (London )
            0778-7367
            2049-3258
            3 November 2014
            2014
            : 72
            : 1
            4322460
            5054
            10.1186/2049-3258-72-38
            © Frumence et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

            This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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            Research
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            © The Author(s) 2014

            Public health

            tanzania, structural, hiv prevalence, cognitive social capital

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