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Enrichment of Chemical Libraries Docked to Protein Conformational Ensembles and Application to Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2

Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling

American Chemical Society

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      Abstract

      Molecular recognition is a complex process that involves a large ensemble of structures of the receptor and ligand. Yet, most structure-based virtual screening is carried out on a single structure typically from X-ray crystallography. Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer an opportunity to sample multiple conformational states of a protein. Here we evaluate our recently developed scoring method SVMSP in its ability to enrich chemical libraries docked to MD structures of seven proteins from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). SVMSP is a target-specific rescoring method that combines machine learning with statistical potentials. We find that enrichment power as measured by the area under the ROC curve (ROC-AUC) is not affected by increasing the number of MD structures. Among individual MD snapshots, many exhibited enrichment that was significantly better than the crystal structure, but no correlation between enrichment and structural deviation from crystal structure was found. We followed an innovative approach by training SVMSP scoring models using MD structures (SVMSPMD). The resulting models were applied to two difficult cases (p38 and CDK2) for which enrichment was not better than random. We found remarkable increase in enrichment power, particularly for p38, where the ROC-AUC increased by 0.30 to 0.85. Finally, we explored approaches for a priori identification of MD snapshots with high enrichment power from an MD simulation in the absence of active compounds. We found that the use of randomly selected compounds docked to the target of interest using SVMSP led to notable enrichment for EGFR and Src MD snapshots. SVMSP rescoring of protein–compound MD structures was applied for the search of small-molecule inhibitors of the mitochondrial enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Rank-ordering of a commercial library of 50 000 compounds docked to MD structures of ALDH2 led to five small-molecule inhibitors. Four compounds had IC50s below 5 μM. These compounds serve as leads for the design and synthesis of more potent and selective ALDH2 inhibitors.

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      Most cited references 68

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      The Protein Data Bank.

      The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.
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        AutoDock Vina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization, and multithreading.

         Oleg Trott,  Jay Olson (2010)
        AutoDock Vina, a new program for molecular docking and virtual screening, is presented. AutoDock Vina achieves an approximately two orders of magnitude speed-up compared with the molecular docking software previously developed in our lab (AutoDock 4), while also significantly improving the accuracy of the binding mode predictions, judging by our tests on the training set used in AutoDock 4 development. Further speed-up is achieved from parallelism, by using multithreading on multicore machines. AutoDock Vina automatically calculates the grid maps and clusters the results in a way transparent to the user. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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          Glide: a new approach for rapid, accurate docking and scoring. 1. Method and assessment of docking accuracy.

          Unlike other methods for docking ligands to the rigid 3D structure of a known protein receptor, Glide approximates a complete systematic search of the conformational, orientational, and positional space of the docked ligand. In this search, an initial rough positioning and scoring phase that dramatically narrows the search space is followed by torsionally flexible energy optimization on an OPLS-AA nonbonded potential grid for a few hundred surviving candidate poses. The very best candidates are further refined via a Monte Carlo sampling of pose conformation; in some cases, this is crucial to obtaining an accurate docked pose. Selection of the best docked pose uses a model energy function that combines empirical and force-field-based terms. Docking accuracy is assessed by redocking ligands from 282 cocrystallized PDB complexes starting from conformationally optimized ligand geometries that bear no memory of the correctly docked pose. Errors in geometry for the top-ranked pose are less than 1 A in nearly half of the cases and are greater than 2 A in only about one-third of them. Comparisons to published data on rms deviations show that Glide is nearly twice as accurate as GOLD and more than twice as accurate as FlexX for ligands having up to 20 rotatable bonds. Glide is also found to be more accurate than the recently described Surflex method.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            4114474
            24856086
            10.1021/ci5002026

            Unknown

            Computational chemistry & Modeling

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