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      Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial1234

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          Abstract

          Background: Replacement of caloric beverages with noncaloric beverages may be a simple strategy for promoting modest weight reduction; however, the effectiveness of this strategy is not known.

          Objective: We compared the replacement of caloric beverages with water or diet beverages (DBs) as a method of weight loss over 6 mo in adults and attention controls (ACs).

          Design: Overweight and obese adults [ n = 318; BMI (in kg/m 2): 36.3 ± 5.9; 84% female; age (mean ± SD): 42 ± 10.7 y; 54% black] substituted noncaloric beverages (water or DBs) for caloric beverages (≥200 kcal/d) or made dietary changes of their choosing (AC) for 6 mo.

          Results: In an intent-to-treat analysis, a significant reduction in weight and waist circumference and an improvement in systolic blood pressure were observed from 0 to 6 mo. Mean (±SEM) weight losses at 6 mo were −2.5 ± 0.45% in the DB group, −2.03 ± 0.40% in the Water group, and −1.76 ± 0.35% in the AC group; there were no significant differences between groups. The chance of achieving a 5% weight loss at 6 mo was greater in the DB group than in the AC group (OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.01; P = 0.04). A significant reduction in fasting glucose at 6 mo ( P = 0.019) and improved hydration at 3 ( P = 0.0017) and 6 ( P = 0.049) mo was observed in the Water group relative to the AC group. In a combined analysis, participants assigned to beverage replacement were 2 times as likely to have achieved a 5% weight loss (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.22; P = 0.04) than were the AC participants.

          Conclusions: Replacement of caloric beverages with noncaloric beverages as a weight-loss strategy resulted in average weight losses of 2% to 2.5%. This strategy could have public health significance and is a simple, straightforward message. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.

          Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin.
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            Is Open Access

            Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

            OBJECTIVE Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks has risen across the globe. Regular consumption of SSBs has been associated with weight gain and risk of overweight and obesity, but the role of SSBs in the development of related chronic metabolic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, has not been quantitatively reviewed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the MEDLINE database up to May 2010 for prospective cohort studies of SSB intake and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. We identified 11 studies (three for metabolic syndrome and eight for type 2 diabetes) for inclusion in a random-effects meta-analysis comparing SSB intake in the highest to lowest quantiles in relation to risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Based on data from these studies, including 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes, individuals in the highest quantile of SSB intake (most often 1–2 servings/day) had a 26% greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest quantile (none or <1 serving/month) (relative risk [RR] 1.26 [95% CI 1.12–1.41]). Among studies evaluating metabolic syndrome, including 19,431 participants and 5,803 cases, the pooled RR was 1.20 [1.02–1.42]. CONCLUSIONS In addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. These data provide empirical evidence that intake of SSBs should be limited to reduce obesity-related risk of chronic metabolic diseases.
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              Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Nutrition (DFT, GT-M, JS, and BP), Department of Health Behavior and Education (DFT), Gillings School of Global Public Health (DFT, GT-M, JS, and BP), Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center (DFT, EL, KE, KP, and MD), and Department of Biostatistics (XW), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
                Author notes
                [2]

                Supported by an investigator-initiated research grant to University of North Carolina from Nestlé Waters USA. Water was provided by Nestlé Waters USA.

                [3]

                Current address: Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (GT-M), and Institute for Translational Sciences, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (EL).

                [4 ]Address correspondence to DF Tate, University of North Carolina, Gillings School of Global School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, Department of Nutrition, Rosenau Hall, CB 7440, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7440. E-mail: dtate@ 123456unc.edu .
                Journal
                Am J Clin Nutr
                Am. J. Clin. Nutr
                ajcn
                The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
                American Society for Nutrition
                0002-9165
                1938-3207
                March 2012
                1 February 2012
                1 March 2013
                : 95
                : 3
                : 555-563
                22301929
                3632875
                026278
                10.3945/ajcn.111.026278
                © 2012 American Society for Nutrition

                This is a free access article, distributed under terms ( http://www.nutrition.org/publications/guidelines-and-policies/license/) which permit unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Obesity and Eating Disorders

                Nutrition & Dietetics

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