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      Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 to 2012

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          Abstract

          This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009 to 2010 and 2011 to 2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

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          Update of the case definitions for population-based surveillance of periodontitis.

          This report adds a new definition for mild periodontitis that allows for better descriptions of the overall prevalence of periodontitis in populations. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology developed and reported standard case definitions for surveillance of moderate and severe periodontitis based on measurements of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL) at interproximal sites. However, combined cases of moderate and severe periodontitis are insufficient to determine the total prevalence of periodontitis in populations. The authors proposed a definition for mild periodontitis as ≥ 2 interproximal sites with AL ≥ 3 mm and ≥ 2 interproximal sites with PD ≥ 4 mm (not on the same tooth) or one site with PD ≥ 5 mm . The effect of the proposed definition on the total burden of periodontitis was assessed in a convenience sample of 456 adults ≥ 35 years old and compared with other previously reported definitions for similar categories of periodontitis. Addition of mild periodontitis increases the total prevalence of periodontitis by ≈31% in this sample when compared with the prevalence of severe and moderate disease. Total periodontitis using the case definitions in this study should be based on the sum of mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis.
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            Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010.

            This study estimated the prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population, with data from the 2009 and 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycle. Estimates were derived from a sample of 3,742 adults aged 30 years and older, of the civilian non-institutionalized population, having 1 or more natural teeth. Attachment loss (AL) and probing depth (PD) were measured at 6 sites per tooth on all teeth (except the third molars). Over 47% of the sample, representing 64.7 million adults, had periodontitis, distributed as 8.7%, 30.0%, and 8.5% with mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis, respectively. For adults aged 65 years and older, 64% had either moderate or severe periodontitis. Eighty-six and 40.9% had 1 or more teeth with AL ≥ 3 mm and PD ≥ 4 mm, respectively. With respect to extent of disease, 56% and 18% of the adult population had 5% or more periodontal sites with ≥ 3 mm AL and ≥ 4 mm PD, respectively. Periodontitis was highest in men, Mexican Americans, adults with less than a high school education, adults below 100% Federal Poverty Levels (FPL), and current smokers. This survey has provided direct evidence for a high burden of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population.
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              Case Definitions for Use in Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis.

              Many definitions of periodontitis have been used in the literature for population-based studies, but there is no accepted standard. In early epidemiologic studies, the two major periodontal diseases, gingivitis and periodontitis, were combined and considered to be a continuum. National United States surveys were conducted in 1960 to 1962, 1971 to 1974, 1981, 1985 to 1986, 1988 to 1994, and 1999 to 2000. The case definitions and protocols used in the six national surveys reflect a continuing evolution and improvement over time. Generally, the clinical diagnosis of periodontitis is based on measures of probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), the radiographic pattern and extent of alveolar bone loss, gingival inflammation measured as bleeding on probing, or a combination of these measures. Several other patient characteristics are considered, and several factors, such as age, can affect measurements of PD and CAL. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of PD and CAL are important because case definitions for periodontitis are based largely on either or both measurements, and relatively small changes in these values can result in large changes in disease prevalence. The classification currently accepted by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) was devised by the 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions. However, in 2003 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the AAP appointed a working group to develop further standardized clinical case definitions for population-based studies of periodontitis. This classification defines severe periodontitis and moderate periodontitis in terms of PD and CAL to enhance case definitions and further demonstrates the importance of thresholds of PD and CAL and the number of affected sites when determining prevalence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Periodontology
                Journal of Periodontology
                American Academy of Periodontology (AAP)
                0022-3492
                1943-3670
                May 2015
                May 2015
                : 86
                : 5
                : 611-622
                Article
                10.1902/jop.2015.140520
                25688694
                c4381fdf-6edf-49e8-8747-2c20803d78ae
                © 2015
                History

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