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      Intraperitoneal Inoculation: An Atypical Route of Trichinella spiralis Infection

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          The intraperitoneal injection is a common method for establishing the experimental animal model infected with parasites. The aim of this study was to investigate if the intraperitoneal injection was another route of Trichinella spiralis infection.


          From June to July 2015, twenty BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 300 T. spiralis muscle larvae in Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, China. The larvae per gr (LPG) muscle from the infected mice and the reproductive capacity index (RCI) of T. spiralis were calculated


          Sixty percent (12/20) mice injected were successfully infected at 35 day post injection (dpi), but the muscle larval burden (381.53 larvae per gr) and reproductive capacity index (32.33) in infected mice was lower.


          A mechanical force indicated as a possible mechanism in successful larval invasion of almost all kind of host tissues. However, the exact migratory route of larvae from peritoneal cavity into small intestine is not clear.

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          Most cited references 20

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          International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption.

          This document provides a uniform set of recommendations for the control of Trichinella at all levels (on the farm, at slaughter and in processed meats). These recommendations are based on the best scientific information available and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable control methods. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.
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            Analysis of differentially expressed genes of Trichinella spiralis larvae activated by bile and cultured with intestinal epithelial cells using real-time PCR.

            The activation of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) by exposure to intestinal contents or bile and the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) themselves are two pivotal requirements for the in vitro larval invasion of IECs. However, it is yet unknown which genes are involved in the process of larval invasion. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the differentially expressed genes of T. spiralis larvae activated by bile and cultured with IECs by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ten T. spiralis genes encoded the proteins produced by the larvae after co-culture with IECs were selected. Compared with untreated ML, four genes were up-regulated in both bile-activated and cell-cultured larvae, including calcium-dependent secretion activator (Csa; 2.55- and 16.04-fold, respectively), multi cystatin-like domain protein precursor (Mcd; 4.36 and 52), serine protease (Sp; 2.03 and 20.02), and intermediate filament protein ifa-1 (Ifa 1; 2 and 3.31). The expression of two genes, enolase (Eno; 1.51) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (Rsk; 1.49), was up-regulated only in cell-cultured larvae, not in bile-activated larvae. The expression of secreted 5'-nucleotidase (5 N; 1.42) and putative serine protease (Psp; 1.41) was up-regulated in bile-activated larvae, but was not changed or down-regulated after cultured with IECs. ATP synthase F1, beta subunit (ATPase; 0.58 and 0.51) and serine protease precursor (Spp; 0.42 and 0.65) were down-regulated in both bile-activated and cell-cultured larvae. This study provide some differentially expressed genes among the untreated (normal), bile-activated and cell-cultured larvae of T. spiralis. The up-regulated genes might be related with the larval invasion of IECs, but their exact biological functions need to be further investigated. This study will be helpful to further elucidate the molecular mechanism of the invasion of IECs by T. spiralis larvae and to better understand the interaction between parasite and host enterocytes.
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              Trichinella spiralis: low vaccine potential of glutathione S-transferase against infections in mice.

               Ling Li,  Zhong Wang,  Ruo Liu (2015)
              We have previously reported that Trichinella spiralis glutathione-S-transferase (TsGST) gene is an up-regulated gene in intestinal infective larvae (IIL) compared to muscle larvae (ML). In this study, the TsGST gene was cloned, and recombinant TsGST (rTsGST) was produced. Anti-rTsGST serum recognized the native TsGST by Western blotting in crude antigens of ML, adult worm (AW) and newborn larvae (NBL) of T. spiralis, but not in ML excretory-secretory (ES) antigens. Expression of TsGST was observed in all different developmental stages (IIL, AW, NBL and ML). An immunolocalization analysis identified TsGST in the cuticle, stichosome and genital primordium of the parasite. The rTsGST had GST enzymatic activity. After a challenge infection with T. spiralis larvae, mice immunized with rTsGST displayed a 35.71% reduction in adult worms and a 38.55% reduction in muscle larvae. The vaccination of mice with rTsGST induced the Th1/Th2-mixed type of immune response with Th2 predominant (high levels of IgG1) and partial protective immunity against T. spiralis infection.

                Author and article information

                Iran J Parasitol
                Iran J Parasitol
                Iranian Journal of Parasitology
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                Jan-Mar 2017
                : 12
                : 1
                : 130-135
                Dept. of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, P. R. China
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence Email: cuij@ 123456zzu.edu.cn
                Copyright© Iranian Society of Parasitology & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Short Communication


                trichinella spiralis, infection route, intraperitoneal injection, mechanical force


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