+1 Recommend
1 collections
      Call for Papers in Kidney and Blood Pressure ResearchKidney Function and Omics Science

      Submission Deadline: December 20, 2023

      Submit now

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Revising the Maximal Contrast Dose for Predicting Acute Kidney Injury following Coronary Intervention


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Introduction: The maximal allowable contrast dose (MACD = 5 × body weight/serum creatinine) is an empiric equation that has been used and validated in several studies to mitigate the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). However, coefficient 5 (referred to as factor K) was empirically devised and never disputed. The aim of this study was to refine the MACD equation for the prediction of CI-AKI following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study of adults undergoing PCI. Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify patients who underwent PCI between 2010 and 2019, derived from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Cath-PCI registry for our hospital. Factor K (defined as contrast volume × serum creatinine/body weight) was calculated for every patient. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed, and the Youden index was used to identify the optimal cut-off value for factor K in predicting severe (stages 2–3) CI-AKI. Results: Of the 3,506 patients undergoing PCI, 255 (7.2%) developed CI-AKI, and 68 (26.7%) of the 255 experienced severe AKI. Factor K predicted all-stage CI-AKI (area under the ROC curve 0.649; 95% CI 0.611, 0.686) but had better performance for predicting severe (stages 2–3) AKI (0.736; 95% CI 0.674, 0.800). The optimal cut-off value for factor K in predicting severe CI-AKI was 2.5, with a corresponding sensitivity of 68.7% and specificity of 70.5%. On subgroup analyses, optimal cut-off values for factor K for high-risk groups were not significantly different from those of low-risk groups. Conclusion: Our study indicates that factor K in the MACD equation is an independent risk factor for the development of severe CI-AKI, with an optimal cut-off value of 2.5. If our findings are validated, the MACD equation should be revised to incorporate the coefficient of 2.5 instead of 5.

          Related collections

          Most cited references29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          pROC: an open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves

          Background Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are useful tools to evaluate classifiers in biomedical and bioinformatics applications. However, conclusions are often reached through inconsistent use or insufficient statistical analysis. To support researchers in their ROC curves analysis we developed pROC, a package for R and S+ that contains a set of tools displaying, analyzing, smoothing and comparing ROC curves in a user-friendly, object-oriented and flexible interface. Results With data previously imported into the R or S+ environment, the pROC package builds ROC curves and includes functions for computing confidence intervals, statistical tests for comparing total or partial area under the curve or the operating points of different classifiers, and methods for smoothing ROC curves. Intermediary and final results are visualised in user-friendly interfaces. A case study based on published clinical and biomarker data shows how to perform a typical ROC analysis with pROC. Conclusions pROC is a package for R and S+ specifically dedicated to ROC analysis. It proposes multiple statistical tests to compare ROC curves, and in particular partial areas under the curve, allowing proper ROC interpretation. pROC is available in two versions: in the R programming language or with a graphical user interface in the S+ statistical software. It is accessible at http://expasy.org/tools/pROC/ under the GNU General Public License. It is also distributed through the CRAN and CSAN public repositories, facilitating its installation.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Index for rating diagnostic tests

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found

              Prediction of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine

              A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (C cr ) from serum creatinine (S cr ) in adult males: Ccr = (140 – age) (wt kg)/72 × S cr (mg/100ml) (15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18–92. Values for C cr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour C cr’s measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr·s of 0.83; on average, the difference between predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                June 2021
                07 April 2021
                : 52
                : 4
                : 328-335
                [_a] aDepartment of Medicine, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                [_b] bDepartment of Cardiology, DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA
                [_c] cInstitute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                [_d] dTufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                [_e] eDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                [_f] fDivision of Nephrology, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                515382 Am J Nephrol 2021;52:328–335
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 05 January 2021
                : 19 February 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 8
                Novel Research Findings

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Maximal allowable contrast dose,Risk prediction,Contrast-induced acute kidney injury,Coronary angiography,Percutaneous coronary intervention,Youden index


                Comment on this article