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      Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff in treatment of resistant exit site infection in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study

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          Abstract

          Background/purpose

          One of the most common complications of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the infection of the exit site of the peritoneal catheter. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff as a part of routine treatment of the resistant exit site infection (ESI).

          Methods

          If the exit site remains infected after a 2-week systemic antibiotics treatment, it is defined as resistant ESI. In these cases, systemic antibiotics were discontinued and a subcutaneous 40-mg gentamicin injection was administered around the external cuff of the PD catheter every 3 days. A total of three or four injections were given to each patient.

          Results

          A subcutaneous gentamicin injection was administered around the cuff in thirteen patients for the treatment of resistant ESI over a 2-year period. The median follow-up time in cured patients was 12 months. Eleven of the thirteen patients had been apparently cured of their resistant ESI, with no recurrence. None of the patients had a gentamicin-resistant species. Subcutaneous gentamicin-related adverse effect was not observed in any patient.

          Conclusion

          Subcutaneous gentamicin injection around the cuff is a well-tolerated and effective strategy for treating resistant ESI. To gain widespread approval of this therapy and reach a consensus about ESI management, additional studies are needed.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: a comparison of adjusted mortality rates.

          Although kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment method for patients with ESRD, most patients are placed on dialysis either while awaiting transplantation or as their only therapy. The question of which dialytic method provides the best patient survival remains unresolved. Survival analyses comparing hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis/continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/CCPD), a newer and less costly dialytic modality, have yielded conflicting results. Using data obtained from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, we compared mortality rates between hemodialysis and CAPD/CCPD among 11,970 ESRD patients who initiated treatment between 1990 and 1994 and were followed-up for a maximum of 5 years. Factors controlled for include age, primary renal diagnosis, center size, and predialysis comorbid conditions. The mortality rate ratio (RR) for CAPD/CCPD relative to hemodialysis, as estimated by Poisson regression, was 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 0.78). No such relationship was found when an intent-to-treat Cox regression model was fit. Decreased covariable-adjusted mortality for CAPD/CCPD held within all subgroups defined by age and diabetes status, although the RRs increased with age and diabetes prevalence. The increased mortality on hemodialysis compared with CAPD/CCPD was concentrated in the first 2 years of follow-up. Although continuous peritoneal dialysis was associated with significantly lower mortality rates relative to hemodialysis after adjusting for known prognostic factors, the potential impact of unmeasured patient characteristics must be considered. Notwithstanding, we present evidence that CAPD/CCPD, a newer and less costly method of renal replacement therapy, is not associated with increased mortality rates relative to hemodialysis.
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            Peritonitis influences mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

            Mortality remains high in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Known risk factors for mortality include age, diabetes, race, initial albumin level, and cardiovascular disease. Peritonitis is reported to cause death in 1 to 6% of PD patients but has not been well studied as a risk factor for mortality. This study examined 516 adults with a total of 896 yr on PD at one center to determine if peritonitis influenced mortality. Time at risk began on Day 1 of training and ended at death, transplant, or 60 days after transfer to hemodialysis or intermittent peritoneal dialysis. The overall mortality rate was 17.4/100 patient yr. Survival was lower for whites, men, diabetic patients, and older patients. Independent risk factors for mortality (by Cox proportional hazards) were race, diabetes, increased age, and increased peritonitis rate. Use of the Y-set was not associated with decreased mortality. Peritonitis was a risk factor only in whites, nondiabetic patients, and those patients over the age of 60. For every 0.5/yr increase in the peritonitis rate, the risk of death increased 10% in whites, 11% in those patients who were over the age of 60, and 4% for nondiabetic patients. Mortality rates did not decrease over time (1979 to 1995), although peritonitis rates fell significantly (P < 0.001). Rates of Gram-negative and fungal peritonitis showed no trend over time. Peritonitis contributed to 25 of 158 (15.8%) of deaths. Gram-negative/fungal peritonitis accounted for 14 deaths (9.5% of all Gram-negative/fungal episodes) whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis accounted for only 1 death (0.5% of all S. epidermidis episodes) (P < 0.001). Cardiovascular disease was more common in those patients whose deaths were unrelated to peritonitis (P < 0.01), whereas an infectious cause was more common in those patients whose deaths were peritonitis-related (P < 0.001). In this study, peritonitis was a risk factor for death in whites, nondiabetic patients, and older patients. However, the Y-set did not improve survival, perhaps because it does not decrease Gram-negative/fungal peritonitis. To have an impact on survival, efforts are needed to reduce the peritonitis that results from these more serious pathogens.
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              Time-dependent reasons for peritoneal dialysis technique failure and mortality.

              Peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique failure is high compared to hemodialysis (HD). There is a lack of data on the impact of duration of PD treatment on technique survival and on whether there is a difference in risk factors with respect to early and late failure. The aim of this study was to clarify these issues by performing a time-dependent analysis of PD technique and patient survival in a large cohort of incident PD patients. We analyzed 709 incident PD patients participating in the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD), who started their treatment between 1997 and 2007. We compared technique and patient survival on PD in 4 periods of follow-up: within the first 3 months, and after 3 - 12 months, 12 - 24 months, and 24 - 36 months of treatment. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze survival on PD and technique failure. Risk factors were also identified by comparing patients that were transferred to HD with those that remained on PD. Incidence rates for every cause of dropout for each period of follow-up were calculated to establish their trends with respect to PD treatment duration. There was a significant increase in transplantation rate after the first year of treatment. The rate of switching to HD was highest during the first 3 months and decreased afterward. One-, 2- and 3-year technique survival was 87%, 76%, and 66%, respectively. Age, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease appeared to be risk factors for death on PD or switch to HD: a 1-year increase in age was associated with a relative risk (RR) of PD failure of 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003 - 1.06]; for diabetes, RR of stopping PD after 3 months of treatment increased from 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 - 3) during the first year to 2.2 (95% CI 1.3 - 4) after the second year; cardiovascular disease had a major impact in the earliest period (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 - 5) and had a stable influence further on (RR 2, 95% CI 1.1 - 3.5). Loss of 1 mL/minute residual glomerular filtration rate (rGFR) appeared to be a significant predictor of PD failure after 3 months of treatment, but within the first 2 years, RR was 1.1 (95% CI 1.04 - 1.25). In The Netherlands, transplantation is a main reason to stop PD treatment. The incidence of PD technique failure is at its highest during the earliest months after treatment initiation and decreases later due to fewer catheter and abdominal complications as well as less influence of psychosocial factors. Risk factors for PD discontinuation are those responsible for patient survival: age, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and rGFR.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2017
                20 July 2017
                : 13
                : 909-914
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine Division of Nephrology, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Atatürk Avenue Hastane street No 78, Postal Code: 38010, Kayseri, Turkey, Tel +90 352 336 8884, Fax +90 352 336 8857, Email osdizdar@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-13-909
                10.2147/TCRM.S140894
                5530059
                © 2017 Dizdar et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                efficacy, catheter, local treatment, subcutaneous gentamicin, peritoneal dialysis

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