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      Superior Predictive Value for NTproBNP Compared with High Sensitivity cTnT in Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Prospective Observational Study

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The clinical utility of the new biomarker, high sensitivity cardiac T troponin (hs-cTnT) is still unclear in dialysis patients. Furthermore, the prognostic value of combining N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and hs-cTnT has not been explored so far. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the utility of hs-cTnT alone versus hs-cTnT in combination with NT-proBNP for predicting death in a stable hemodialysis cohort. Methods: A prospective observational pilot study including 98 chronic asymptomatic hemodialysis patients with a follow up period of 24 months was designed. The cut-off values for NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, using mortality as an end-point. Based on the cut-off values, the cohort was divided into four groups. Group 1 - NT-proBNP < 14275 pg/ml and hs-cTnT < 69.48 ng/l; group 2 - NT-proBNP < 14275 pg/ml and hs-cTnT > 69.48 ng/l; group 3 - NT-proBNP > 14275 pg/ml and hs-cTnT < 69.48 ng/l; group 4 - NT-proBNP > 14275 pg/ml and hs-cTnT > 69.48 ng/l. Survival for each group was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results: During the follow-up period 16 patients died. According to the ROC curves analysis, the cut-off point for hs-cTnT and for NT-proBNP were 69.43 ng/l (AUC = 0.618; p = 0.04) and 14275 pg/ml (AUC = 0.722; p = 0.003), respectively. In univariate Cox analysis, both hs-cTnT (HR = 3.34; p = 0.016) and NT-proBNP (HR = 5.94; p = 0.01) were predictors of death. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, only NT-pro-BNP levels above the cut-off value remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. The combined elevation of both biomarkers did not improve significantly the prognostic value compared with NT-proBNP alone (HR = 6.15 versus HR =4 .78; p = 0.338). Conclusion: NT-pro-BNP is a strong predictor of overall mortality in asymptomatic hemodialysis patients. The addition of hs-cTnT did not improve the prognostic accuracy compared with NT proBNP alone.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Vitamin D therapy and cardiac structure and function in patients with chronic kidney disease: the PRIMO randomized controlled trial.

          Vitamin D is associated with decreased cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality, possibly by modifying cardiac structure and function, yet firm evidence for either remains lacking. To determine the effects of an active vitamin D compound, paricalcitol, on left ventricular mass over 48 weeks in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Multinational, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial among 227 patients with chronic kidney disease, mild to moderate left ventricular hypertrophy, and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, conducted in 11 countries from July 2008 through September 2010. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral paricalcitol, 2 μg/d (n =115), or matching placebo (n = 112). Change in left ventricular mass index over 48 weeks by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary end points included echocardiographic changes in left ventricular diastolic function. Treatment with paricalcitol reduced parathyroid hormone levels within 4 weeks and maintained levels within the normal range throughout the study duration. At 48 weeks, the change in left ventricular mass index did not differ between treatment groups (paricalcitol group, 0.34 g/m(2.7) [95% CI, -0.14 to 0.83 g/m(2.7)] vs placebo group, -0.07 g/m(2.7) [95% CI, -0.55 to 0.42 g/m(2.7)]). Doppler measures of diastolic function including peak early diastolic lateral mitral annular tissue velocity (paricalcitol group, -0.01 cm/s [95% CI, -0.63 to 0.60 cm/s] vs placebo group, -0.30 cm/s [95% CI, -0.93 to 0.34 cm/s]) also did not differ. Episodes of hypercalcemia were more frequent in the paricalcitol group compared with the placebo group. Forty-eight week therapy with paricalcitol did not alter left ventricular mass index or improve certain measures of diastolic dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00497146.
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            Towards improved cardiovascular management: the necessity of combining blood pressure and fluid overload.

            Hypertension and fluid overload (FO) are well-recognized problems in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. While the prevalence of hypertension is well documented, little is known about the severity of FO in this population. A new bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM-Body Composition Monitor) was selected that allows quantitative determination of the deviation in hydration status from normal ranges (DeltaHS). Pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure (BPsys) and DeltaHS was analysed in 500 haemodialysis patients from eight dialysis centres. A graphical tool (HRP-hydration reference plot) was devised allowing DeltaHS to be combined with measurements of BPsys enabling comparison with a matched healthy population (n = 1244). Nineteen percent of patients (n = 95) were found to have normal BPsys and DeltaHS in the normal range. Approximately one-third of patients (n = 133) exhibited reasonable control of BPsys and fluids (BPsys 150 mmHg) with a concomitant DeltaHS >2.5 L (possible volume-dependent hypertension). In contrast, 13% of patients (n = 69) were hypertensive with DeltaHS <1.1 L (possible essential hypertension). In 10% of patients (n = 52), BPsys <140 mmHg was recorded despite DeltaHS exceeding 2.5 L. Our study illustrated the wide variability in BPsys regardless of the degree of DeltaHS. The HRP provides an invaluable tool for classifying patients in terms of BPsys and DeltaHS and the proximity of these parameters to reference ranges. This represents an important step towards more objective choice of strategies for the optimal treatment of hypertension and FO. Further studies are required to assess the prognostic and therapeutic role of the HRP.
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              Benefits and harms of statin therapy for persons with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Statins have uncertain benefits in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) because individual trials may have insufficient power to determine whether treatment effects differ with severity of CKD. To summarize the benefits and harms of statin therapy for adults with CKD and examine whether effects of statins vary by stage of kidney disease. Cochrane and EMBASE databases (inception to February 2012). Randomized trials comparing the effects of statins with placebo, no treatment, or another statin on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Eighty trials comprising 51099 participants compared statin with placebo or no treatment. Treatment effects varied with stage of CKD. Moderate- to high-quality evidence indicated that statins reduced all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.81 [95% CI, 0.74 to 0.88]), cardiovascular mortality (RR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.89]), and cardiovascular events (RR, 0.76 [CI, 0.73 to 0.80]) in persons not receiving dialysis. Moderate- to high-quality evidence indicated that statins had little or no effect on all-cause mortality (RR, 0.96 [CI, 0.88 to 1.04]), cardiovascular mortality (RR, 0.94 [CI, 0.82 to 1.07]), or cardiovascular events (RR, 0.95 [CI, 0.87 to 1.03]) in persons receiving dialysis. Effects of statins in kidney transplant recipients were uncertain. Statins had little or no effect on cancer, myalgia, liver function, or withdrawal from treatment, although adverse events were evaluated systematically in fewer than half of the trials. There was a reliance on post hoc subgroup data for earlier stages of CKD. Statins decrease mortality and cardiovascular events in persons with early stages of CKD, have little or no effect in persons receiving dialysis, and have uncertain effects in kidney transplant recipients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                December 2014
                19 December 2014
                : 39
                : 6
                : 636-647
                Affiliations
                Nephrology Clinic, Dialysis and Renal Transplant Center, C.I. Parhon University Hospital, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
                Author notes
                *Dimitrie Siriopol, Nephrology Clinic, Dialysis and Renal Transplant Center, C.I. Parhon University Hospital,, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bdul carol nr.50, Iasi (Romania), E-Mail dimitrie.siriopol@yahoo.com
                Article
                368452 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:636-647
                10.1159/000368452
                25571877
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Paper

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