The present study was designed to examine the anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from ethanol extracts of Dipterocarpus alatus, in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. At 1 h after 250 mg·kg −1 potassium oxonate was given, vaticaffinol at 20, 40, and 60 mg·kg −1 was intragastrically administered to hyperuricemic mice once daily for seven consecutive days. Vaticaffinol significantly decreased serum uric acid levels and improved kidney function in hyperuricemic mice. It inhibited hepatic activity of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XOD), regulated renal mRNA and protein levels of urate transporter 1 (URAT1), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1), and OCTN2 in hyperuricemic mice. Moreover, vaticaffinol markedly down-regulated renal protein levels of NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like (ASC), and Caspase-1, resulting in the reduction of interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α) levels in this animal model. Additionally, HPLC and LC-MS analyses clearly testified the presence of vaticaffinol in the crude extract. These results suggest that vaticaffinol may be useful for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia with kidney inflammation.