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      Anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory actions of vaticaffinol isolated from Dipterocarpus alatus in hyperuricemic mice

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          Abstract

          The present study was designed to examine the anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from ethanol extracts of Dipterocarpus alatus, in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. At 1 h after 250 mg·kg −1 potassium oxonate was given, vaticaffinol at 20, 40, and 60 mg·kg −1 was intragastrically administered to hyperuricemic mice once daily for seven consecutive days. Vaticaffinol significantly decreased serum uric acid levels and improved kidney function in hyperuricemic mice. It inhibited hepatic activity of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XOD), regulated renal mRNA and protein levels of urate transporter 1 (URAT1), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1), and OCTN2 in hyperuricemic mice. Moreover, vaticaffinol markedly down-regulated renal protein levels of NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like (ASC), and Caspase-1, resulting in the reduction of interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α) levels in this animal model. Additionally, HPLC and LC-MS analyses clearly testified the presence of vaticaffinol in the crude extract. These results suggest that vaticaffinol may be useful for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia with kidney inflammation.

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          Most cited references 25

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          The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger?

          Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) are all implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here we review mechanisms directing IL-1beta production and its pathogenic role in islet dysfunction during chronic hyperglycemia. In doing so, we integrate previously disparate disease-driving mechanisms for IL-1beta, ROS, and TXNIP in T2DM into one unifying model in which the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a central role. The NLRP3 inflammasome also drives IL-1beta maturation and secretion in another disease of metabolic dysregulation, gout. Thus, we propose that the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to the pathogenesis of T2DM and gout by functioning as a sensor for metabolic stress.
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            The NLRP3 inflammasome promotes renal inflammation and contributes to CKD.

            Inflammation significantly contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inflammasome-dependent cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18, play a role in CKD, but their regulation during renal injury is unknown. Here, we analyzed the processing of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice, which suggested activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome during renal injury. Compared with wild-type mice, Nlrp3(-/-) mice had less tubular injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after UUO, associated with a reduction in caspase-1 activation and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18; these data confirm that the Nlrp3 inflammasome upregulates these cytokines in the kidney during injury. Bone marrow chimeras revealed that Nlrp3 mediates the injurious/inflammatory processes in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cellular compartments. In tissue from human renal biopsies, a wide variety of nondiabetic kidney diseases exhibited increased expression of NLRP3 mRNA, which correlated with renal function. Taken together, these results strongly support a role for NLRP3 in renal injury and identify the inflammasome as a possible therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with progressive CKD.
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              Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol, Curcumin and Simvastatin in Acute Small Intestinal Inflammation

              Background The health beneficial effects of Resveratrol, Curcumin and Simvastatin have been demonstrated in various experimental models of inflammation. We investigated the potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of the above mentioned compounds in a murine model of hyper-acute Th1-type ileitis following peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that after peroral administration of Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin, mice were protected from ileitis development and survived the acute phase of inflammation whereas all Placebo treated controls died. In particular, Resveratrol treatment resulted in longer-term survival. Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin treated animals displayed significantly increased numbers of regulatory T cells and augmented intestinal epithelial cell proliferation/regeneration in the ileum mucosa compared to placebo control animals. In contrast, mucosal T lymphocyte and neutrophilic granulocyte numbers in treated mice were reduced. In addition, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were increased whereas pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-23p19, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1) was found to be significantly lower in the ileum of treated animals as compared to Placebo controls. Furthermore, treated animals displayed not only fewer pro-inflammatory enterobacteria and enterococci but also higher anti-inflammatory lactobacilli and bifidobacteria loads. Most importantly, treatment with all three compounds preserved intestinal barrier functions as indicated by reduced bacterial translocation rates into spleen, liver, kidney and blood. Conclusion/Significance Oral treatment with Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin ameliorates acute small intestinal inflammation by down-regulating Th1-type immune responses and prevents bacterial translocation by maintaining gut barrier function. These findings provide novel and potential prophylaxis and treatment options of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 May 2017
                : 15
                : 5
                : 330-340
                Affiliations
                1Institute of Functional Biomolecules, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: KONG Ling-Dong, Tel: 86-25-83594691, E-mail: kongld@ 123456nju.edu.cn ; GE Hui-Ming, hmge@ 123456nju.edu.cn

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(17)30053-5
                10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30053-5
                28558868
                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University
                Award ID: IRT_14R271020
                This work was supported by grants from Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT_14R271020).

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