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      The prevalence of low physical activity in an urban population and its relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors: Findings of a community-based study (KERCADRS) in southeast of Iran

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          The low physical activity (LPA) more or less affects every community. Because of high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Iran and their relationship with LPA, this study aimed to measure precisely the epidemic size of LPA and determine its relationship with six other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors among an urban population aged 15 to 75 years in Kerman, Iran.


          Using household survey, 5895 adults were randomly recruited through single-stage cluster sampling from 250 postal codes. Demographic characteristics, blood pressure, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, smoking, opium use, mental status and physical activities at work, rest and recreation were assessed and ranked as low, moderate and intense. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was reported as a measure of the relationship between LPA and other CAD risk factors.


          The prevalence of low, moderate, and intense physical activity were 42.1% (40.3-43.9), 45.0% (43.6-47.4) and 12.4% (11.1-13.9), respectively. LPA showed a sudden rise from 36.8% to 45.4% after the age of 25 years. On average, women had less physical activity than men (45.1% vs. 39.2%, P= 0.01). Participants with low physical activity compared to those without physical activity had significantly higher chance of anxiety [odds ratio 1.39; confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08-1.79; P = 0.01], hypertension (1.59; 1.08-2.35; P = 0.02), hyper-cholesterolemia (1.37; 1.06-1.76; P = 0.02), cigarette smoking (1.52; 1.07-2.11; P = 0.01), opium addiction (1.47; 1.07-2.02; P = 0.02) and overweight/obesity (1.34; 1.05-1.71; P = 0.02).


          LPA was very common in the studied population and almost half of the adults were at risk for CAD because of insufficient level of physical activity. Such risky life-style pattern makes the emerging of CAD epidemic unavoidable, if effective interventions not being in place timely to this community.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence.

          The primary purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the current literature and to provide further insight into the role physical inactivity plays in the development of chronic disease and premature death. We confirm that there is irrefutable evidence of the effectiveness of regular physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) and premature death. We also reveal that the current Health Canada physical activity guidelines are sufficient to elicit health benefits, especially in previously sedentary people. There appears to be a linear relation between physical activity and health status, such that a further increase in physical activity and fitness will lead to additional improvements in health status.
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            Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders.

            There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms which hinder patients to participate and benefit from exercise training.
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              The burden of disease and injury in Iran 2003

              Background The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of disease and injury in Iran for the year 2003, using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) at the national level and for six selected provinces. Methods Methods developed by the World Health Organization for National Burden of Disease (NBD) studies were applied to estimate disease and injury incidence for the calculation of Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality (YLL), Years Lived with Disability (YLD), and DALYs. The following adjustments of the NBD methodology were made in this study: a revised list with 213 disease and injury causes, development of new and more specific disease modeling templates for cancers and injuries, and adjustment for dependent comorbidity. We compared the results with World Health Organization (WHO) estimates for Eastern Mediterranean Region, sub-region B in 2002. Results We estimated that in the year 2003, there were 21,572 DALYs due to all diseases and injuries per 100,000 Iranian people of all ages and both sexes. From this total number of DALYs, 62% were due to disability premature deaths (YLD) and 38% were due to premature deaths (YLL); 58% were due to noncommunicable diseases, 28% – to injuries, and 14% – to communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions. Fifty-three percent of the total number of 14.349 million DALYs in Iran were in males, with 36.5% of the total due to intentional and unintentional injuries, 15% due to mental and behavioral disorders, and 10% due to circulatory system diseases; and 47% of DALYs were in females, with 18% of the total due to mental and behavioral disorders, 18% due to intentional and unintentional injuries, and 12% due to circulatory system diseases. The disease and injury causes leading to the highest number of DALYs in males were road traffic accidents (1.071 million), natural disasters (548 thousand), opioid use (510 thousand), and ischemic heart disease (434 thousand). The leading causes of DALYs in females were ischemic heart disease (438 thousand), major depressive disorder (420 thousand), natural disasters (419 thousand), and road traffic accidents (235 thousand). The burden of disease at the province level showed marked variability. DALY estimates by Iran's NBD study were higher than those for EMR-B by WHO. Conclusion The health and disease profile in Iran has made the transition from the dominance of communicable diseases to that of noncommunicable diseases and road traffic injuries. NBD results are to be used in health program planning, research, and resource allocation and generation policies and practices.

                Author and article information

                ARYA Atheroscler
                ARYA Atheroscler
                ARYA Atherosclerosis
                Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
                September 2016
                : 12
                : 5
                : 212-219
                [1 ]Professor, Cardiovascular Research Center AND Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [2 ]Associate Professor, Physiology Research Center AND Department of Cardiology, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [3 ]Assistant Professor, School of Public Health, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
                [4 ]Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center AND Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [5 ]Assistant Professor, Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Mansoor Moazenzadeh Email: mmoazenzadeh170@
                © 2016 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center & Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Original Article


                iran, coronary artery disease, physical activity, urban population, kerman


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