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      Waardenburg syndrome

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      International Journal of Dermatology

      Wiley

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          Waardenburg syndrome type 2 caused by mutations in the human microphthalmia (MITF) gene.

          Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is a dominantly inherited syndrome of hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances. We recently mapped a WS2 gene to chromosome 3p12.3-p14.1 and proposed as a candidate gene MITF, the human homologue of the mouse microphthalmia (mi) gene. This encodes a putative basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor expressed in adult skin and in embryonic retina, otic vesicle and hair follicles. Mice carrying mi mutations show reduced pigmentation of the eyes and coat, and with some alleles, microphthalmia, hearing loss, osteopetrosis and mast cell defects. Here we show that affected individuals in two WS2 families have mutations affecting splice sites in the MITF gene.
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            A homozygous mutation in the endothelin-3 gene associated with a combined Waardenburg type 2 and Hirschsprung phenotype (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome).

            Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) or colonic aganglionosis is a congenital disorder characterized by an absence of intramural ganglia along variable lengths of the colon resulting in intestinal obstruction. The incidence of HSCR is 1 in 5,000 live births. Mutations in the RET gene, which codes for a receptor tyrosine kinase, and in EDNRB which codes for the endothelin-B receptor, have been shown to be associated with HSCR in humans. The lethal-spotted mouse which has pigment abnormalities, but also colonic aganglionosis, carries a mutation in the gene coding for endothelin 3 (Edn3), the ligand for the receptor protein encoded by EDNRB. Here, we describe a mutation of the human gene for endothelin 3 (EDN3), homozygously present in a patient with a combined Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) and HSCR phenotype (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome). The mutation, Cys159Phe, in exon 3 in the ET-3 like domain of EDN3, presumably affects the proteolytic processing of the preproendothelin to the mature peptide EDN3. The patient's parents were first cousins. A previous child in this family had been diagnosed with a similar combination of HSCR, depigmentation and deafness. Depigmentation and deafness were present in other relatives. Moreover, we present a further indication for the involvement of EDNRB in HSCR by reporting a novel mutation detected in one of 40 unselected HSCR patients.
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              A gene for Waardenburg syndrome type 2 maps close to the human homologue of the microphthalmia gene at chromosome 3p12-p14.1.

              Waardenburg syndrome (WS), an autosomal dominant syndrome of hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances, comprises at least two separate conditions. WS type 1 is normally caused by mutations in PAX3 located at chromosome 2q35 and is distinguished clinically by minor facial malformations. We have now located a gene for WS type 2. Two families show linkage to a group of microsatellite markers located on chromosome 3p12-p14.1. D3S1261 gave a maximum lod score of 6.5 at zero recombination in one large Type 2 family. In a second, smaller family the adjacent marker D3S1210 gave a lod of 2.05 at zero recombination. Interestingly, the human homologue (MITF) of the mouse microphthalmia gene, a good candidate at the phenotypic level, has recently been mapped to 3p12.3-p14.4.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Dermatology
                Int J Dermatol
                Wiley
                0011-9059
                1365-4632
                September 1999
                September 1999
                : 38
                : 9
                : 656-663
                Article
                10.1046/j.1365-4362.1999.00750.x
                © 1999

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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