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      Insecticidal efficacy and chemical composition of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile seed oils against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)


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          ABSTRACT Botanical pesticides are a new trend for pest management because they are an environmentally safe alternative for synthetic chemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticidal activity of desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca %#91;L.%#93; Delile) seed oils against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) and determine the oil chemical compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Oils were extracted by chloroform, hexane, and ethanol, and they were tested on the pest by the film residue method at doses of 1.131, 0.566, 0.283, and 0.142 mg cm-2 after 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Results showed that chloroform achieved a 100% mortality rate at 1.131 and 0.566 mg cm-2 after 12 and 36 h exposure, respectively. Meanwhile, the hexane extract caused a similar effect after 24 and 48 h at the same doses, respectively. The chloroform extract scored the lowest median lethal dose (LD50, 0.134 mg cm-2) against the pest after 48 h of exposure. This finding indicated that chloroform extract was the most toxic for T. castaneum compared with the other extracts. The results of the oil analysis revealed that (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, and (E)-octadec-6- enoic acid were the main components, but the concentration differed from one extract to another. These results suggest that chloroform and hexane extracts have potent insecticidal activity and could be used in grain storage to control pests.

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          Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

          Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling.
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            A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity

            Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae), known as ‘desert date,’ is spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m tall, widely distributed in dry land areas of Africa and South Asia. It is traditionally used in treatment of various ailments i.e. jaundice, intestinal worm infection, wounds, malaria, syphilis, epilepsy, dysentery, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, stomach aches, asthma, and fever. It contains protein, lipid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, and organic acid. Present review summarizes the traditional claims, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of B. aegyptiaca Del reported in scientific literature.
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                Author and article information

                Chilean journal of agricultural research
                Chil. j. agric. res.
                Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA (Chillán, , Chile )
                March 2021
                : 81
                : 1
                : 102-108
                [1] Shanxi orgnameShanxi University orgdiv1Institute of Resources and Environmental Engineering China
                S0718-58392021000100102 S0718-5839(21)08100100102

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 14 July 2020
                : 03 October 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 7

                SciELO Chile

                Self URI: Full text available only in PDF format (EN)

                Tribolium castaneum,LD50,contact toxicity,Chloroform extract,desert date


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