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      Trace element exposure of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in a marine lagoon (Swan Lake), northern China.

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          Abstract

          Trace element poisoning remains a great threat to various waterfowl and waterbirds throughout the world. In this study, we determined the trace element exposure of herbivorous whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in Swan Lake (Rongcheng), an important swan protection area in northern China. A total of 70 samples including abiotic factors (seawater, sediments), food sources (seagrass, macroalgae), feathers and feces of whooper swans were collected from the marine lagoon during the winters of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg and As were determined to investigate the trace element exposure of whooper swans wintering in the area. Results showed that there was an increasing trend in sediment trace element concentrations, compared with historical data. The trace element concentrations in swan feces most closely resembled those of Zostera marina leaves, especially for Cd and Cr. The Zn and Hg concentrations in the swan feces (49.57 and 0.01mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the minimum values reported in the literature for other waterfowls, waterbirds and terrestrial birds. However, the concentrations of the other five trace elements fell within the lower and mediate range of values reported for birds across the world. These results suggest that the whooper swans wintering in Swan Lake, Rongcheng are not suffering severe trace element exposure; however, with the increasing input of trace elements to the lagoon, severe adverse impacts may occur in the future, and we therefore suggest that the input of trace elements to this area should be curbed.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Mar. Pollut. Bull.
          Marine pollution bulletin
          Elsevier BV
          1879-3363
          0025-326X
          Jun 30 2017
          : 119
          : 2
          Affiliations
          [1 ] CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China.
          [2 ] CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address: yizhou@qdio.ac.cn.
          Article
          S0025-326X(17)30283-7
          10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.03.063
          28392089
          c481960c-7131-40c9-b3cc-29469dd7daa3
          History

          Seagrass,Trace elements,Whooper swans,Conservation,Exposure,Feces,Marine lagoon

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