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High Glucose Enhances oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells Largely via Inducing Lectin-Like ox-LDL Receptor-1

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      Background: High blood glucose is characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Both lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and renal tubular epithelial cells apoptosis reportedly are important for the pathogenesis and progression of DN. In this study, we explored the regulatory effects of high glucose on the expression of LOX-1 and its impact on oxLDL-induced apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HRPTEpCs). Methods: Primary HRPTEpCs were treated with high glucose with or without concurrent treatment with selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD169316 or lentiviral knockdown of LOX-1. HRPTEpCs cultured in normal glucose concentration (5.5 mmol/l) was used as a control. Results and Conclusion: High glucose concentration dependency increased the expression of LOX-1, which led to increased ox-LDL binding in HRPTEpCs. In addition, high glucose upregulated the LOX-1 gene promoter activity but not its mRNA stability in HRPTEpCs; the effect was abolished by PD169316. Furthermore, high glucose markedly enhanced oxLDL-induced apoptosis in HRPTEpCs, which was largely abolished by knockdown of LOX-1. This study demonstrates that high glucose induces the expression of LOX-1 at the gene promoter/transcription level mainly by a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism, which enhances oxLDL-induced apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells. It adds new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying DN.

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      Most cited references 12

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      Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

       K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
      The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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        Interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibits glucocorticoid receptor function.

        Previous studies have demonstrated that interleukinalpha (IL-1alpha) inhibits glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and dexamethasone (Dex)-induced gene transcription. Given that IL-1alpha is a potent activator of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway and p38 MAPK has been associated with reduced GR function, we examined the role of p38 MAPK in IL-1alpha-mediated inhibition of GR function in mouse fibroblast cells stably transfected with a GR-mediated reporter gene construct (LMCAT cells). Treatment of LMCAT cells with IL-1alpha (1000 U/ml) for 24 h inhibited Dex (50 nM)-induced GRE-CAT activity by approximately 35%. When cells were cotreated for 24 h with IL-1alpha plus SB-203580 (0.5-1 microM), a selective p38 inhibitor, IL-1alpha's inhibitory effect on GR function as determined by Dex-induced GRE-CAT activity was reversed. Using gel mobility shift assay, SB-203580 was also found to reverse IL-1alpha inhibition of GR-GRE binding. Further confirming the role of p38 pathways, pretreatment of LMCAT cells with antisense oligonucleotides targeted to p38 MAPK completely abrogated IL-1alpha inhibition of Dex-induced GRE-CAT activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that activation of p38 MAPK pathways are involved in IL-1alpha-mediated inhibition of GR function. In addition, these findings extend the intracellular targets of p38 to include the GR and indicate that p38 inhibitors may have special utility in immunologic and/or neuropsychiatric disorders associated with impaired GR-mediated feedback inhibition.
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          Renal mass reduction results in accumulation of lipids and dysregulation of lipid regulatory proteins in the remnant kidney.

          A significant reduction of renal mass results in proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial injury, culminating in end-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). The accumulation of lipids in the kidney can cause renal disease. Uptake of oxidized lipoproteins via scavenger receptors, reabsorption of filtered protein-bound lipids via the megalin-cubilin complex, and increased glucose load per nephron can promote lipid accumulation in glomerular, tubular, and interstitial cells in CRF. Cellular lipid homeostasis is regulated by lipid influx, synthesis, catabolism, and efflux. We examined lipid-regulatory factors in the remnant kidney of rats 11 wk after nephrectomy (CRF) or sham operation. CRF resulted in azotemia, proteinuria, lipid accumulation in the kidney, upregulation of megalin, cubilin, mediators of lipid influx (scavenger receptor class A and lectin-like oxidized receptor-1), lipid efflux (liver X receptor alpha/beta and ATP-binding cassette transporter), and fatty acid biosynthesis (carbohydrate-response element binding protein, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase). However, factors involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (sterol regulatory element binding protein, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, SCAP, Insig-1, and Insig-2) and fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, acyl-CoA oxidase, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein) were reduced in the remnant kidney. Thus CRF results in heavy lipid accumulation in the remnant kidney, which is mediated by upregulation of pathways involved in tubular reabsorption of filtered protein-bound lipids, influx of oxidized lipoproteins and synthesis of fatty acids, and downregulation of pathways involved in fatty acid catabolism.

            Author and article information

            Departments of aGeriatrics and bRehabilitation, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
            S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ )
            June 2016
            23 March 2016
            : 98
            : 1-2
            : 20-28
            Pharmacology 2016;98:20-28
            © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 24, Pages: 9
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