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      Cluster failure: Why fMRI inferences for spatial extent have inflated false-positive rates

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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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          The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk.

          People typically exhibit greater sensitivity to losses than to equivalent gains when making decisions. We investigated neural correlates of loss aversion while individuals decided whether to accept or reject gambles that offered a 50/50 chance of gaining or losing money. A broad set of areas (including midbrain dopaminergic regions and their targets) showed increasing activity as potential gains increased. Potential losses were represented by decreasing activity in several of these same gain-sensitive areas. Finally, individual differences in behavioral loss aversion were predicted by a measure of neural loss aversion in several regions, including the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex.
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            Intrinsic signal changes accompanying sensory stimulation: functional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging.

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              A method for using blocked and event-related fMRI data to study "resting state" functional connectivity.

              Resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has become a particularly useful tool for studying regional relationships in typical and atypical populations. Because many investigators have already obtained large data sets of task-related fMRI, the ability to use this existing task data for resting state fcMRI is of considerable interest. Two classes of data sets could potentially be modified to emulate resting state data. These data sets include: (1) "interleaved" resting blocks from blocked or mixed blocked/event-related sets, and (2) residual timecourses from event-related sets that lack rest blocks. Using correlation analysis, we compared the functional connectivity of resting epochs taken from a mixed blocked/event-related design fMRI data set and the residuals derived from event-related data with standard continuous resting state data to determine which class of data can best emulate resting state data. We show that, despite some differences, the functional connectivity for the interleaved resting periods taken from blocked designs is both qualitatively and quantitatively very similar to that of "continuous" resting state data. In contrast, despite being qualitatively similar to "continuous" resting state data, residuals derived from event-related design data had several distinct quantitative differences. These results suggest that the interleaved resting state data such as those taken from blocked or mixed blocked/event-related fMRI designs are well-suited for resting state functional connectivity analyses. Although using event-related data residuals for resting state functional connectivity may still be useful, results should be interpreted with care.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                July 12 2016
                July 12 2016
                July 12 2016
                June 28 2016
                : 113
                : 28
                : 7900-7905
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.1602413113
                © 2016

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