Electrochemical sensors demonstrate outstanding performance at detecting heavy metal ions, with a high specific surface area and high sensitivity which can excellently complete the on-site detection of trace heavy metal ions in water.
Heavy metal ions are one of the main sources of water pollution. Most heavy metal ions are carcinogens that pose a threat to both ecological balance and human health. With the increasing demand for heavy metal detection, electrochemical detection is favorable due to its high sensitivity and efficiency. Here, after discussing the pollution sources and toxicities of Hg( ii), Cd( ii), As( iii), Pb( ii), UO 2( ii), Tl( i), Cr( vi), Ag( i), and Cu( ii), we review a variety of recent electrochemical methods for detecting heavy metal ions. Compared with traditional methods, electrochemical methods are portable, fast, and cost-effective, and they can be adapted to various on-site inspection sites. Our review shows that the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions is a very promising strategy that has attracted widespread attention and can be applied in agriculture, life science, clinical diagnosis, and analysis.