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      Genetic Risk Assessment of Elastin Gene Polymorphisms with Intracranial Aneurysm in Koreans

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          Elastin encoded by elastin gene ( ELN) is a crucial extracellular matrix protein responsible for arterial resilience. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ELN gene susceptible to intracranial aneurysm (IA) in Korean population. Two SNPs of ELN gene, rs2071307 (Gly422Ser) and rs2856728 (intron), were genotyped in 90 patients with IA and 90 age and frequency matched controls. Fisher’s exact test was conducted to evaluate allelic association with IA. Of the two SNPs in ELN gene, T allele of rs2856728 (intron) showed statistically significant association with increased development of IA (odds ratio [OR]: 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44–3.81, P = 7.6 × 10 −4). However, G allele of rs2071307 (Gly422Ser) had no significant association with the development of IA (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.44–3.81, P = 0.607). Interestingly, the odds of having rs2856728 variant was approximately 2-fold higher in males than that in females (OR: 3.46 vs. 1.88, P < 0.05). However, none of SNPs showed difference between single and multiple IA in this study. This preliminary study implies that the rs2856728 variant in ELN gene polymorphisms might play crucial roles in the development and pathogenesis of IA in Korean population.

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          Haploview: analysis and visualization of LD and haplotype maps.

          Research over the last few years has revealed significant haplotype structure in the human genome. The characterization of these patterns, particularly in the context of medical genetic association studies, is becoming a routine research activity. Haploview is a software package that provides computation of linkage disequilibrium statistics and population haplotype patterns from primary genotype data in a visually appealing and interactive interface.
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            Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history, clinical outcome, and risks of surgical and endovascular treatment.

            The management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is controversial. Investigators from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms aimed to assess the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms and to measure the risk associated with their repair. Centres in the USA, Canada, and Europe enrolled patients for prospective assessment of unruptured aneurysms. Investigators recorded the natural history in patients who did not have surgery, and assessed morbidity and mortality associated with repair of unruptured aneurysms by either open surgery or endovascular procedures. 4060 patients were assessed-1692 did not have aneurysmal repair, 1917 had open surgery, and 451 had endovascular procedures. 5-year cumulative rupture rates for patients who did not have a history of subarachnoid haemorrhage with aneurysms located in internal carotid artery, anterior communicating or anterior cerebral artery, or middle cerebral artery were 0%, 2. 6%, 14 5%, and 40% for aneurysms less than 7 mm, 7-12 mm, 13-24 mm, and 25 mm or greater, respectively, compared with rates of 2 5%, 14 5%, 18 4%, and 50%, respectively, for the same size categories involving posterior circulation and posterior communicating artery aneurysms. These rates were often equalled or exceeded by the risks associated with surgical or endovascular repair of comparable lesions. Patients' age was a strong predictor of surgical outcome, and the size and location of an aneurysm predict both surgical and endovascular outcomes. Many factors are involved in management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Site, size, and group specific risks of the natural history should be compared with site, size, and age-specific risks of repair for each patient.
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              Sample Size and Statistical Power Calculation in Genetic Association Studies

               Eun Hong,  Ji Wan Park (2012)
              A sample size with sufficient statistical power is critical to the success of genetic association studies to detect causal genes of human complex diseases. Genome-wide association studies require much larger sample sizes to achieve an adequate statistical power. We estimated the statistical power with increasing numbers of markers analyzed and compared the sample sizes that were required in case-control studies and case-parent studies. We computed the effective sample size and statistical power using Genetic Power Calculator. An analysis using a larger number of markers requires a larger sample size. Testing a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker requires 248 cases, while testing 500,000 SNPs and 1 million markers requires 1,206 cases and 1,255 cases, respectively, under the assumption of an odds ratio of 2, 5% disease prevalence, 5% minor allele frequency, complete linkage disequilibrium (LD), 1:1 case/control ratio, and a 5% error rate in an allelic test. Under a dominant model, a smaller sample size is required to achieve 80% power than other genetic models. We found that a much lower sample size was required with a strong effect size, common SNP, and increased LD. In addition, studying a common disease in a case-control study of a 1:4 case-control ratio is one way to achieve higher statistical power. We also found that case-parent studies require more samples than case-control studies. Although we have not covered all plausible cases in study design, the estimates of sample size and statistical power computed under various assumptions in this study may be useful to determine the sample size in designing a population-based genetic association study.

                Author and article information

                Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo)
                Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
                Neurologia medico-chirurgica
                The Japan Neurosurgical Society
                January 2018
                10 November 2017
                : 58
                : 1
                : 17-22
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea;
                [2 ]Institute of New Frontier Research, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea;
                [3 ]Department of Medical Genetics, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea;
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to: Jeong Eun Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Korea. e-mail: eunkim@
                © 2018 The Japan Neurosurgical Society

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit

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