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      Knowledge and pharmaceutical care practice regarding inhaled therapy among registered and unregistered pharmacists: an urgent need for a patient-oriented health care educational program in Iraq

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          Inadequate inhaled aerosol device demonstration and technique by health care professionals can lead to poor disease control. The aims of this study were to develop and validate Knowledge of Aerosol Tool (KAT) among registered and unregistered pharmacists and to assess the pharmaceutical care practice among registered pharmacists.


          The KAT and pharmaceutical care practice questionnaires were developed and modified from previous reports, then an observational cross-sectional study with a convenience sample size of 340 was carried out among registered and unregistered pharmacists. The validation process included face validity and reliability, and item analysis was carried out.


          The results showed good face validity and reliability with Cronbach’s alpha test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for test–retest of 0.637 and 0.440, respectively. The KAT item difficulty index for most items was between 0.130 and 0.667. The total KAT scores for registered and unregistered pharmacists were 10.13±3.152 and 8.29±2.930, respectively, which revealed inadequate pharmacist knowledge of inhaled aerosol device technique and therapies. In addition, only 38.38% of the total sample was found to have a high KAT level score. The results showed higher KAT scores among males, pharmacists with a family history of respiratory disease, and pharmacists with a master’s degree. For the registered pharmacists, there were positive correlations between the total KAT score and the total pharmaceutical care practice score and the average number of patients with a respiratory disease seen by the pharmacist weekly, respectively. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the total KAT score and its aerosol administration subscale with pharmacotherapy care and comorbid disease management practice care.


          The KAT showed good validity and reliability, hence, it can be used for training or educational purposes. This study showed that professional knowledge and pharmaceutical care are a major concern in Iraq. KAT implementation depends on the whole educational process from undergraduate study to residence training.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests

           Lee Cronbach (1951)
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            What the pulmonary specialist should know about the new inhalation therapies.

            A collaboration of multidisciplinary experts on the delivery of pharmaceutical aerosols was facilitated by the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM), in order to draw up a consensus statement with clear, up-to-date recommendations that enable the pulmonary physician to choose the type of aerosol delivery device that is most suitable for their patient. The focus of the consensus statement is the patient-use aspect of the aerosol delivery devices that are currently available. The subject was divided into different topics, which were in turn assigned to at least two experts. The authors searched the literature according to their own strategies, with no central literature review being performed. To achieve consensus, draft reports and recommendations were reviewed and voted on by the entire panel. Specific recommendations for use of the devices can be found throughout the statement. Healthcare providers should ensure that their patients can and will use these devices correctly. This requires that the clinician: is aware of the devices that are currently available to deliver the prescribed drugs; knows the various techniques that are appropriate for each device; is able to evaluate the patient's inhalation technique to be sure they are using the devices properly; and ensures that the inhalation method is appropriate for each patient.
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              Misuse of corticosteroid metered-dose inhaler is associated with decreased asthma stability.

               V Giraud,  N. Roche (2002)
              This study assessed whether the improper use of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) is associated with decreased asthma control in asthmatics treated by inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). General practitioners (GPs) included consecutive asthmatic outpatients treated by pMDI-administered ICS and on-demand, short-acting beta2-agonists. They measured an asthma instability score (AIS) based on daytime and nocturnal symptoms, exercise-induced dyspnoea, beta2-agonist usage, emergency-care visits and global perception of asthma control within the preceding month; the inhalation technique of the patient also was assessed. GPs (n=915) included 4,078 adult asthmatics; 3,955 questionnaires were evaluable. pMDI was misused by 71% of patients, of which 47% was due to poor coordination. Asthma was less stable in pMDI misusers than in good users (AIS: 3.93 versus 2.86, p<0.001). Among misusers, asthma was less stable in poor coordinators (AIS: 4.38 versus 3.56 in good coordinators, p<0.001). To conclude, misuse of pressurized metered-dose inhalers, which is mainly due to poor coordination, is frequent and associated with poorer asthma control in inhaled corticosteroid-treated asthmatics. This study highlights the importance of evaluating inhalation technique and providing appropriate education in all patients, especially before increasing inhaled corticosteroid dosage or adding other agents. The use of devices which alleviate coordination problems should be reinforced in pressurized metered-dose inhaler misusers.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                12 March 2018
                : 13
                : 879-888
                Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Palestine Street, Baghdad 10052, Iraq, Email xbm2004@
                © 2018 Abdulameer. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                pharmacist, validation, pharmaceutical care, aerosol knowledge


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