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      Glucoside Derivatives Of Podophyllotoxin: Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, And Cytotoxicity

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          Widespread concern of the side effects and the broad-spectrum anticancer property of podophyllotoxin as an antitumor agent highlight the need for the development of new podophyllotoxin derivatives. Although some per-butyrylated glucosides of podophyllotoxin and 4β-triazolyl-podophyllotoxin glycosides show good anticancer activity, the per-acetylated/free of podophyllotoxin glucosides and their per-acetylated are not well studied.


          A few glucoside derivatives of PPT were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60 (leukemia), SMMC-7721 (hepatoma), A-549 (lung cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and SW480 (colon cancer), as well as the normal human pulmonary epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). In addition, we investigated the structure–activity relationship and the physicochemical property–anticancer activity relationship of these compounds.


          Compound 6b shows the highest cytotoxic potency against all five cancer cell lines tested, with IC 50 values ranging from 3.27±0.21 to 11.37±0.52 μM. We have also found that 6b displays higher selectivity than the etoposide except in the case of HL-60 cell line. The active compounds possess similar physicochemical properties: MSA > 900, %PSA < 20, ClogP > 2, MW > 700 Da, and RB > 10.


          We synthesized several glucoside derivatives of PPT and tested their cytotoxicity. Among them, compound 6b showed the highest cytotoxicity. Further studies including selectivity of active compounds have shown that the selectivity indexes of 6b are much greater than the etoposide except in the case of HL-60 cell line. The active compounds possessed similar physicochemical properties. This study indicates that active glucoside analogs of podophyllotoxin have potential as lead compounds for developing novel anticancer agents.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The sensitivity and specificity of the MTS tetrazolium assay for detecting the in vitro cytotoxicity of 20 chemicals using human cell lines.

          A number of studies reported that the MTS in vitro cytotoxicity assay is a convenient method for assessing cell viability. The main features found with this assay are its ease of use, accuracy and rapid indication of toxicity. It might well be a useful tool in human health risk assessment if it can be shown that this assay also has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity. This is of interest particularly when exposure to unknown chemical substances requires the rapid detection and evaluation of toxic effects. In this study, the cytotoxicity of 20 chemicals selected from the MEIC priority list was determined with the MTS assay. Since it could be shown that interactions between detection reagents and test chemicals might influence the results of this assay, preliminary experiments were carried out such that artifactual results due to test chemical interference could be excluded from this study. IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) were established for each test chemical in two human cell lines (F1-73 and HeLa) and later compared with published toxicity data of the same chemicals established with in vitro and in vivo toxicological test systems. Direct comparisons of the data showed a generally lower sensitivity of the MTS assay, which is influenced by biological test organisms, cell type and exposure time. In terms of the specificity of the MTS assay, the results showed a good correlation between data obtained with the MTS assay and published data. The lowest correlation was found when the MTS assay was compared with in vivo studies, however, this finding corresponds well with other published in vitro-in vivo correlations. The highest correlation was found when the MTS assay was compared with test systems using human cell lines or exposure times of 3-24 h. Since the sensitivity of the MTS assay might be increased using different cell types or by extended incubation, this assay is found to provide ideal features of a good measurement system that might also be used for on site toxicological assessments.
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            Podophyllotoxin: distribution, sources, applications and new cytotoxic derivatives.

            Several podophyllotoxin derivatives modified in the A, B, C, D and E rings were prepared from podophyllotoxin and methyl isoxazopodophyllic acid and evaluated for their cytotoxicity on several neoplastic cell lines. Chemical transformations performed on these compounds have yielded derivatives more potent and more selective that the parent compound. Most of the compounds maintained their cytotoxicity at the microM level. Distribution, biosynthesis, production, biotechnology, applications and synthesis have also been reviewed.
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              Podophyllotoxin derivatives: current synthetic approaches for new anticancer agents.

              Podophyllotoxin is an antimitotic natural product. Its inhibitory activity on cell growth led to the development of the clinically valuable anticancer agents, etoposide, teniposide and the water-soluble prodrug, etoposide phosphate. The cytotoxic mechanism of these drugs is the inhibition of topoisomerase II, unlike the lead compound which inhibits mitosis. Through extensive structure-activity relationship studies, several potential drug candidates were synthesized such as GL-331, TOP 53, NK611, and azatoxin. Recently, more complex and diverse analogues have been synthesized either to get more potent compounds or to overcome drug resistance. At the same time, a number of prodrug approaches have been tried to enhance the tumor selectivity or to increase the aqueous solubility. The prodrugs can release cytotoxic etoposide through the actions of hydrolysis, enzymes or catalytic antibodies. More sophisticated prodrug strategies have been applied in etoposide and these produced some interesting results. In this review, the current research trends in the design of new derivatives will be covered with a brief introduction of podophyllotoxin and related analogues.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                23 October 2019
                : 13
                : 3683-3692
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Pu-Er Tea Science, Ministry of Education, College of Science, Yunnan Agricultural University , Kunming, 650201, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Kunming 650201, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Nature Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University , Kunming 650091, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University , Thunder Bay ON P7B 5E1, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zi-Hua Jiang Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University , 955 Oliver Road, Thunder BayON P7B 5EI, CanadaTel +1 807 766 7171Fax +1 807 346 7775 Email zjiang@lakeheadu.ca
                Jiang-Miao Hu State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences , No. 132, Lanhei Road, Kunming650201, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 871 6522 3264Fax +86 871 6522 3261 Email hujiangmiao@mail.kib.ac.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Zi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 38, Pages: 10
                Original Research


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