Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II belongs to a recently discovered family of peroxidases that play important roles in antioxidation and signal transduction. In this study, we aimed to study the localization and expression of Prx II in the mouse ovary, oviduct, and uterus, and preimplantation embryos. Immunohistochemical staining analysis showed that, in the ovary, Prx II was expressed in the oocyte cytoplasm of the primary follicle, the secondary follicle, and the premature follicle; Prx II was expressed in germinal vesicle-intact oocytes (GV oocytes) and metaphase II eggs (MII eggs), as well as at various stages in early embryos. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated that the Prx II mRNA was expressed at a high level in GV eggs, slightly lower levels in MII eggs, and had no detectable expression in four-cell embryos and early blastocysts. In the oviduct, Prx II was expressed in the epithelia, while in the uterus Prx II was mainly distributed in the endometrial stroma. Taken together, our results suggest that Prx II plays a key antioxidation role in the maturation of oocytes and development of early embryos, thus providing crucial experimental evidence for further exploring the function of Prx II in the development of oocytes and preimplantation embryos. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.