Chemical defences are widespread in nature, yet we know little about whether and how climatic and geographic factors affect their evolution. In this study, we investigated the natural variation in the concentration and composition of the main bufogenin toxin in adult Asian toads ( Bufo gargarizans Cantor) captured in twenty-two regions. Moreover, we explored the relative importance of eight climatic factors (average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average relative humidity, 20–20 time precipitation, maximum continuous precipitation, maximum ground temperature, and minimum ground temperature) in regulating toxin production. We found that compared to toads captured from central and southwestern China, toads from eastern China secreted higher concentrations of cinobufagin (CBG) and resibufogenin (RBG) but lower concentrations of telocinobufagin (TBG) and cinobufotalin (CFL). All 8 climatic variables had significant effects on bufogenin production ( r i >0.5), while the plastic response of bufogenin toxin to various climate factors was highly variable. The most important climatic driver of total bufogenin production was precipitation: the bufogenin concentration increased with increasing precipitation. This study indicated that the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in chemical defences may depend at least partly on the geographic variation of defensive toxins and their climatic context.