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      Long-term survival of neonatal porcine islets in nonhuman primates by targeting costimulation pathways.

      Nature medicine
      Animals, Animals, Newborn, Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy, Graft Rejection, immunology, Graft Survival, Islets of Langerhans, cytology, Islets of Langerhans Transplantation, Macaca, Pancreatectomy, Swine, Time Factors, Transplantation, Heterologous

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          Abstract

          We evaluated the ability of neonatal porcine islets to engraft and restore glucose control in pancreatectomized rhesus macaques. Although porcine islets transplanted into nonimmunosuppressed macaques were rapidly rejected by a process consistent with cellular rejection, recipients treated with a CD28-CD154 costimulation blockade regimen achieved sustained insulin independence (median survival, >140 days) without evidence of porcine endogenous retrovirus dissemination. Thus, neonatal porcine islets represent a promising solution to the crucial supply problem in clinical islet transplantation.

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