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      MMP-12 and Macrophage Activation in Acute Aortic Dissection

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          Most cited references 15

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          Metalloproteinase expression in monocytes and macrophages and its relationship to atherosclerotic plaque instability.

          Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can degrade strength-giving collagens and other structural proteins of the arterial extracellular matrix. Overproduction of MMPs by monocyte/macrophages could therefore promote atherosclerotic plaque rupture and myocardial infarction. Freshly-recruited monocyte macrophages appear to use a prostaglandin (PG)-dependent pathway to coordinately upregulate a broad and potentially highly-destructive spectrum of MMPs. Differentiated macrophages rely on a series of distinct pathways to selectively upregulate groups of MMPs. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that different macrophage phenotypes express characteristically different spectra of MMPs and their inhibitors. New therapies may result from targeting matrix MMP overproduction.
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            Neutrophil-derived matrix metalloproteinase 9 triggers acute aortic dissection.

            Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening vascular disease without effective pharmaceutical therapy. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the development of chronic vascular diseases including aneurysm, but the key effectors and mechanism of action remain unknown. To define further the role of MMPs in AAD, we screened circulating MMPs in AAD patients, and then generated a novel mouse model for AAD to characterize the mechanism of action. MMP9 and angiotensin II were elevated significantly in blood samples from AAD patients than in those from the patients with nonruptured chronic aortic aneurysm or healthy volunteers. Based on the findings, we established a novel AAD model by infusing angiotensin II to immature mice that had been received a lysyl oxidase inhibitor, β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate. AAD was developed successfully in the thoracic aorta by angiotensin II administration to β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate-treated wild-type mice, with an incidence of 20%, 80%, and 100% after 6, 12, and 24 hours, respectively. Neutrophil infiltrations were observed in the intima of the thoracic aorta, and the overexpression of MMP9 in the aorta was demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, gelatin zymography, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of AAD was reduced significantly by 40% following the administration of an MMP inhibitor and was almost blocked completely in MMP(-/-) mice without any influence on neutrophil infiltration. Neutrophil depletion by injection of anti-granulocyte-differentiation antigen-1 (anti-Gr-1) antibody also significantly decreased the incidence of AAD. These data suggest that AAD is initiated by neutrophils that have infiltrated the aortic intima and released MMP9 in response to angiotensin II.
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              Expression and localization of macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12) in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

              Elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), a disorder characterized by chronic aortic wall inflammation and destruction of medial elastin. The purpose of this study was to determine if human macrophage elastase (HME; MMP-12) might participate in this disease. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, HME mRNA was consistently demonstrated in AAA and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) tissues (six of six), but in only one of six normal aortas. Immunoreactive proteins corresponding to proHME and two products of extracellular processing were present in seven of seven AAA tissue extracts. Total HME recovered from AAA tissue was sevenfold greater than normal aorta (P < 0.001), and the extracted enzyme exhibited activity in vitro. Production of HME was demonstrated in the media of AAA tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, but HME was not detected within the media of normal or AOD specimens. Importantly, immunoreactive HME was specifically localized to residual elastin fragments within the media of AAA tissue, particularly areas adjacent to nondilated normal aorta. In vitro, the fraction of MMP-12 sequestered by insoluble elastin was two- to fivefold greater than other elastases found in AAA tissue. Therefore, HME is prominently expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages within the degenerating aortic media of AAA, where it is also bound to residual elastic fiber fragments. Because elastin represents a critical component of aortic wall structure and a matrix substrate for metalloelastases, HME may have a direct and singular role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                July 2014
                05 June 2014
                : 128
                : 4
                : 314-315
                Affiliations
                aUOC Medicina Interna, bUOC Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Molecolare, cUOS Aterosclerosi e Dislipidemia, dUOC Chirurgia Vascolare, Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia, Sapienza Università di Roma, Azienda Ospedaliera Sant'Andrea, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                *Flavia Del Porto, MD, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Molecolare, Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia Sapienza Università di Roma, Azienda Ospedaliera Sant'Andrea, Via di Grottarossa 1035-1039, IT-00189 Rome (Italy), E-Mail flavia.delporto@uniroma1.it
                Article
                361039 Cardiology 2014;128:314-315
                10.1159/000361039
                24902500
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 2
                Categories
                Letter to the Editor

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

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